Arch of constantine early 4th ce, dedicated by the senate. Also used it as a staging device, called a triumph involving the army and loot. Constantine s arch is interesting bc it used recycled elements, to remind people of health and life in the empire in the past. Used to remind ppl of the past bc it is now the beginning of the end. Constantine what made rome great was sticking to roman values. Spolias: round medallions, despoiling something, wrecking something to make something new to make a historical point. has nothing to do w shape. Serifs: text convention still in use today, pointy endings on the end of letters, creating micro shadows making text much more readable. Insula: urban houses, like the apartment building. high density, for plebs. common kitchens on ground oor, common latrines, made of bricks and concrete. Ground oor was also commercial, taverns pubs etc. few windows, small if there were.