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BIOCH 200 (January 13, 2014) - Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

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Walter Dixon

* = important points to me BIOCH 200 Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids – con’t (January 13, 2014) • *The reason that DNA has an overall negative charge is because of many oxygen atoms with a negative formal charge that are a part of the phosphate groups • Determining whether a sequence is one of RNA or DNA: o *If a sequence is written without any indication (5’  3’) of directionality, it is assumed that from left to right, the directionality is 5’ (left)  3’ (right) o *If there is no “T” or “U” present, the sequence is presumed to be RNA  If “T” is present, the sequence is most definitely one of DNA  If “U” is present, the sequence is most definitely one of RNA o *If there is a lower case “d” in between the base letters, then the sequence is one of DNA  *“d” = deoxyribose • FMN = flavin mononucleotide • *Polynucleotides literally mean more than one nucleotide linked together… however, what it really means in BIOCH is that it contains a large number of nucleotides (>15), like DNA/RNA • Polynucleotides: o Mononucleotides include: ATP, ADP, FMN o Dinucleotides include: FAD, NAD+, dCdG o Oligonucleotides have <15 nucleotides o Tri-, tetra- ….. 10-mer, 20-mer …. And on and on. • *The phosphodiester bonds that hold together the nucleotide residues can be broken by phosphodiesterase (hydrolase) o *This type of reaction is
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