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BIOCH 200 (January 10, 2014) - Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids

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University of Alberta
Walter Dixon

* = points that I think are important BIOCH 200 Necleotides and Nucleic Acids con’t (January 10, 2014) • *Nucleotides and the polymers that they create are involved with almost everything related to cellular life o Redox reactions * = points that I think are important  NADH/FADH 2 o Energy transfer  ATP (or NTP in general; N = nucleotide) o Intercellular signalling  cAMP o Biosynthetic Reactions  AcetylCoA o Storage and decoding of genetic informations  DNA/RNA o As enzymes  RNA • Nucleotides can be converted into nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and high-energy molecules (NTP’s and the electron carriers NADH and FADH ) 2 • *DNA = phosphate(s) + nitrogen-containing base + 5 carbon sugar o Phosphate(s)  1 = monophosphate  2 = diphosphate  3 = triphosphate o Nitrogen-containing base (diagram of difference below)  Purine  Pyrimidine o *5-carbon sugar:  If there is a hydroxyl group on C-2  ribose  If not (two hydrogen atoms connected to C-2)  deoxyribose • (Think ‘de’ + ‘oxy’ = ‘no’ + ‘oxygen’) * = points that I think are important Purines and Pyrimidines • *The purine is the large molecule and the pyrimidine is the smaller molecule (reverse size relationship in comparison to the word length) • *Helpful ways to remember (according to me, use at own discretion!) o All pyrimidines have a carbonyl group in between two nitrogen atoms.  That being said, uracil and thymine (RNA base and DNA base respectively) are the only 2 pyrimidines with 2 carbonyl groups • Cytosine only has one carbonyl group. o THYmine contains a meTHYl group.  If it is a pyrimidine with 2 carbonyl groups and NO methyl group, it is uracil. o I noticed something about the complementary bases:  The purine without a carbonyl group is the complement of pyrimidines containing 2
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