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BIOCH 200 (January 27, 2014) - Protein Structure and Function

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University of Alberta
Walter Dixon

BIOCH 200: Protein Structure and Funciton – Amino Acids (con’t) | (January 27, 2014) • Ionization states of amino acids: o *pH < 2  Overall positive charge  COO + H  COOH o *pH > 9.5  Overall negative charge 3+ 2 +  NH  NH + H o *2 > pH > 9.5  Neutral overall charge  Individual positive and negative formal charges cancel out. • *All amino acids are chiral molecules EXCEPT for glycine (not chiral because it only has 3 different groups surrounding the central carbon) - 3+ o Glycine = central carbon + 2H + COO + NH o *Chiral molecule – is a molecule whose mirror image cannot be superimposed on the original  Also, has a property of being asymetric o “L” and “D” orientation of amino acids:  “L”  light is rotated to the left  “R” light is rotated to the right • Amino Acid Side Chains o The 20 amino acids that we speak of are just the ones that are most incorporated into the manufacture of proteins  They are not the only amino acids that exist in nature! o *Different amino acids are characterized by their “R” (hydrocarbon) groups. o *These amino acids can be divided into 3 groups:  Non-polar (and therefore, hydrophobic)  Polar  Charged (VERY
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