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BIOCH 200 (March 21, 2014) - Metabolism

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University of Alberta
Walter Dixon

BIOCH 200 (March 21, 2014) • High-energy intermediates o Contain “usable” energy coming from bonding breaking between two parts of a molecule that have high electrostatic repulsion against each other o *Can be recovered or infused  *Ex. ATP requires 32kJ of energy to make, but when broken down, released 32kJ of energy. o *There are 3 major types of these high-energy molecules:  *Electron carriers • NADH, NADPH, FADH , FMN2 2 • *The electron acceptor versions: NAD+, NADP+, FAD, FMN o *These are NOT high-energy molecules  *Nucleotide triphosphates • NTP: GTP, ATP, UTP • *There are also other high-energy phosphate-containing molecules o Ex. phosphorcreatine (effective ATP store replenish- er) o  Thioesters • *Unlike esters which have a linking oxygen atom, these molecules have a linking sulfur atom. o *Sulfur atoms are larger than oxygen molecules so they are more unstable due to restricted resonance  Less e- delocalization o *Higher instability from electrostatic repulsion = more energy will be released when the covalent bond is broken • Oxidative/Reductive Reactions o Catabolism is oxidative  Oxidation = loss of electrons for bond breaking  The cofactors that cause oxidation are called oxidating agents • By oxidizing substrate, they are reducing themselves  Typically: NAD+, FAD o Anabolism is reductive  Reduction = gain of electrons for bond formation  The cofactors that cause reduction are called reducing agents • By reducing the substrate, they are oxidizing themselves  Typically: NADPH • *Carbon dioxide is the most oxidized form of carbon • *Methane is the most reduced form of carbon • When FAD gets reduced to oxidize a metabolite, it gets reoxidized by coenzyme Q in the citric acid cycle • *I-Clicker Questions: o Which of the following is FALSE with respect to reversible metabolic reactions? 
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