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BIOCH 200 (March 12, 2014) - Biological Membranes

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Walter Dixon

BIOCH 200 – Biological Membranes (March 12, 2014) • Lipids are hydrophobic in nature. Types of lipids: o Fatty acids o Triacylglycerides (TAGs/FAT) o Membrane lipids  Glycerophosholipids  Sphingolipids  Cholesterol • *Not found in plants or bacteria. They have their own analogous forms of this steroid o Cholesterol • Fatty Acids o *Up to 24 carbons long o *Amphipathic (aka amphiphillic)  Having polar and non-polar properties o *May be saturated or unsaturated  *Saturated – no bonds can be broken to allow for the incorporation of new atoms (only single bonds present)  *Unsaturated – bonds can be broken to allow for incorporation of other atoms (double bonds present) • Nomenclature: o Mono- (one double bond) or poly-unsaturated (more than 1 double bond) o *Double bonds are usually ‘cis’ (Z). This means that the more important substituent attached to either carbon are on the same side of the double bond • *Shorthand hydrocarbon chain naming: o Ex. 16:1Δ7  16 = number of carbons on the hydrocarbon chain  1 = # of double bonds present  7 = which carbon the double bond starts on • More than one? Separate with commas  16:3 Δ7,#,# o This does not indicate whether the double bonds are ‘cis’ or ‘trans’ though so this has to be indicated in a different way. • *‘Cis’ double bonds alter the shape of fatty acids and make the fatty acids harder to stack over each other. This allows for more fluidity. o *In saturated fatty acids, the tails are close together thus maximizing van der Walls interactions. More attraction to each other = more stability = less fluid in nature.  Oil has lots of ‘cis’ unsaturated fatty acids (liquid)  Butter has lots of saturated fatty acids (solid) • *Fatty acid melting points: o *The longer the length the higher the melting point o *The higher the saturation, the higher the melti
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