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BIOCH 200 (March 28, 2014) - Oxidative Phosphorylation & Glucose Metabolism

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University of Alberta
Walter Dixon

BIOCH 200 – Oxidative Phosphorylation & Glucose Metabolism (March 28, 2014) Flowchart annotations: • And vice versa • *The phosphate/oxygen ratio (P/O ratio) relates how much ATP is synthesized from however much oxygen is needed o For NADH, it is 2.5  *Higher ratio means higher H+ transport out of the matrix from e- transport  2 e- travelling through ETC cause 10 H+ to leave the matrix o For FADH ,2it is 1.5  2 e- travelling through ETC leads to the pumping out of 6 H+ from the matrix o *In both cases though, 4 H+ are needed for the synthesis of an ATP molecule.  *3 of which are involved with the ATP synthase  *1 of which is involved with the phosphate symporter • *Phosphate source for ATP synthesis comes from the cytosol and needed to be imported into the mitochondrial in this way • *There is a way that protons can enter the matrix without needing the ATP synthase though… through an “uncoupling protein” o *When protons pass through this uncoupling protein, heat is generated rather than ATP o *This alternate proton transport route is found specialized mitochondria found in brown adipose (fat) tissue  This fat is metabolized for the sole purpose of providing heat when energy is not really needed (during hibernation, the animal only needed enough energy to stay warm) • *The use of this coupling protein is not constitutive though. It is signalled by environmental cues (ex. cold weather) o *The presence of this uncoupling protein speeds up the depletion of the H+ gradient. This leads to increased e- transport, oxygen consumption, and therefore NADH/FADH oxidation (what would be seen in the opposite 2 version of the annotated diagram at the start of this set of notes) o There has been speculation that taking advantage of this protein can lead to weight loss diet methods one of which was fatal: 2,4-dinitrophenol  *Worked by accelerating the movement of H+ back into the matrix via the uncoupling protein • *I-Clicker Question: How is NADH reoxidized? o A) NADH is reoxidized via the ETC (in aerobic conditions) o B) NADH is reoxidized via participating in certain anabolic functions (in anaerobic conditions) o C) A and B • *Too much “brown fat metabolism” via uncoupling protein is detrimental to essential metabolic processes that rely on the ATP synthase which is overshadowed by the activity of the uncoupling protein in this case Start
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