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Biology 107.docx

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Department
Biology (Biological Sciences)
Course
BIOL107
Professor
Frank Nargang
Semester
Fall

Description
Biology 107 Lecture 1 2011Topic 1MacromoleculesMolecular Components of Living Cells 4 General ClassesLiving cells contains simple molecules of each classThey also contain large polymers of classes 1 3 and 4When polymers of any class are extremely large they are called macromolecules 1 CarbohydratesSugars and its polymersMonosaccharidesMost common monosaccharides contain 3 5 or 6 Carbon atoms Eg 1 Glyceraldehyde C3H6O3 Eg 2 Glucose C6H12O6 Eg 3 Ribose C5H10O5 Eg 4 Fructose C6H12O6 Eg 5 Galactose C6H12O6Disaccharides o Sugars made from 2 joined monosaccharides o Eg Glucosefructosesucrose table sugarPolysaccharides o Tend to be macromolecules o 100s or 1000s of joined monomers o Eg StarchMade of glucose monomersUsed by plants to store glucose surplus o Eg GlycogenAlso made of glucoseUsed by animalsStructure is highly branched o Eg CelluloseMade of glucoseDifferent anomeric form of glucoseMajor component of plant cell walls o Eg ChitinMain component of arthropod skeletonsMade of NAcetyl glucosamine monomersPage1 Biology 107 Lecture 1 2011CONTD L11 Carbohydrates Contd Bonds between the monosaccharides are the result of a dehydration reaction or condensation reactionIn fact for all classes of molecules that we discussed the monomer units are joined to each other or to existing polymers by dehydration reactionsDehydration reactions involve the loss of a water moleculeEg Shown on Fig 52a pg 69This reaction can also occur in the opposite direction ie Removing a monomer unit from an existing polymer o Called hydrolysisa water molecule is added to break the bond o Eg Shown on Fig 52b pg 69Name of the bond formed between different classes of molecules is different for each class o For joining monosaccharide sugars togethercalled a glycosidic bond2 LipidsA heterogeneous groupPALMITIC ACIDMost are very hydrophobic o Having an aversion to water o Molecules dont dissolve in H2OOpposite is hydrophilic o Have an affinity for water o Molecules do dissolve in H2OEg Of Important Biological Lipids o Fatty acidsContain hydrocarbon chain with an acidic carboxyl group COOH at one endEg Palmitic acidwebsite Fig Fat BondsCH214CH3 groups extremely hydrophobicPalmitic acid is said to be saturated carbons do contain max number of H atoms o Neutral fats or fatsContains a molecule of glycerol which is joined to 1 2 or 3 fatty acidsmono di or triglyceridesglycerolsEg Fig 510 pg 75 Bond between the glycerol and the fatty acids is called an ester linkageEg Fig 510 pg 75Fatty acids and neutral fats usually function as storage molecules o IMPORTANCE OF LIPID STRUCTURE TO HEALTH Page2 Biology 107 Lecture 1 2011 Dietarywe consume both unsaturated vs saturated fatsUnsaturated fatsPlantFish oilsContain at least one unsaturated bondo Called a cis double bond hydrogen atoms are on the same side of the double bond o This creates kink in the molecule molecule bends o kink hinders the molecules from packing together therefore they are usually liquid at room temperature and are called oilsSaturated fatsMost dietary animal fatsNo double bonds because they are saturated and in turn no kinksLOL THIS IS AN EXAMPLE WHERE IT WOULD BE BETTER TO BE KINKYBecause of the lack of kinks they can pack together tightlyand therefore solid at room temperatureEg Butter lardSeveral studies link diets rich in saturated fats to cardiovascular diseaseTrans FatsAre unsaturated fatsVast majority consumed by humans are produced by the food industryBegan in the early 1900so Found that plant oils can be partially hydrogenated hydrogen atoms added to them therefore many of the existing double bonds are saturated o Hydrogen added to make plant oils solid at room temperature and was thought to be beneficial because made plant oils solid at room temperature andhad a longer shelf life without the knowledge of health concernsBUT o The process of doing this involves bubbling hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst Page3
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