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Lecture 1

BIOL107 Lecture 1: January 9, 2019


Department
Biology (Biological Sciences)
Course Code
BIOL107
Professor
Cirelli,Damián
Lecture
1

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Lecture 1: Organic Molecules
Overview:
Elements and molecules found in living cells
a. Water (the majority of all living things are composed of 70% or more water)
b. Organic molecules
36% proteins
24% nucleic acids
9% lipids
6% macromolecules
3% cofactors
2% carbohydrates
c. inorganic molecules
Organic Compounds contain Carbon (C)
An organic compound can be broadly defined as a molecule that contains a carbon-to-
carbon (C-C) bond or a carbon-to-hydrogen (C-H) bond, however there are some
exceptions (such as carbon dioxide which is NOT an organic molecule despite having
carbon).
Synthesis of Organic Molecules
Most molecules are based upon an arrangement of small molecules called monomers.
Monomer (1 unit)
Dimer (2 Units)
Oligomer (A few units)
Polymer (Many units)
Dehydration reactions occur during the synthesis (constructing/ building) of molecules
and compounds. In a dehydration reaction, a water molecule is removed, forming a
new bond.
a. Dehydration reaction: synthesizing a polymer

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Hydrolysis reaction occurs during breakdown. In a hydrolysis reaction, a water
molecule is added to the polymer, breaking the bond between the monomers.
Carbohydrates
Also known as saccharides- (complex carbohydrates)
Also known as “sugars” (colloq.)-(simple carbohydrates)
a. Monosaccharides (monomer of saccharides)
b. Disaccharides (dimers of saccharides)
c. Oligosaccharides (oligomers of saccharides)

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d. Polysaccharides (polymers of saccharides)
Monosaccharides
Poly-hydroxide aldehydes (the hydroxyl group is attached to the end of the
monosaccharide) or poly-hydroxide ketones (the hydroxyl group is not attached
to the end of the monosaccharide, rather it is embedded within the middle
3,5 and 6 are the most common monomers
5- and 6-carbon monosaccharides are usually in a ring-like structure.
Ring structures can take on different forms based on ring membership
Ring structures can take on different forms based on the symmetry of C-1
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