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Lecture 4

BIOL107 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek, Monera, Extremophile

Biology (Biological Sciences)
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January 16, 2019
Discovery of Bacteria
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek made these drawings of bacteria in the human mouth in
Prokaryote and Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes (Pro=before; Karyotes=nucleus)
No nucleus
No membrane enclosed organelles
Circular DNA
Eukaryote (Eu=true; Karyote=nucleus)
Membrane enclosed organelles
Linear DNA
Five Kingdoms of Life
Plantae (plants)
Fungi (mushrooms, mould)
Protista (protists)
Animalia (animals)
Monera (unicellular organisms)
Discovery of Arachea as a Unique Group
Similar in morphology to bacteria; similar to both prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Prokaryotes that live in extreme environments (extremophiles) are very different
Three Domain System
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Proposed by Carl Woese in 1977
Domain Bacteria
Domain Arachae
Domain Eukaryote
LUA- Last Universal Ancestor
Linnean Taxonomy
Propsed by Carl Linnaeus
Proposed that we give each animal their own unique binomen (two-part name),
which contains a genus and a species name.
Lecture 3: Cells and Cell Membrane
Living Organisms are made of one or more cells
Number of cells
Plasma membrane
Animal cell plasma membrane
Human RBC (red blood cells) plasma membrane
Other membranes
Number of Cells
One cell-unicelluar
Example: a single-celled protist
A few cells forming a colony
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