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Lecture 5

BIOL107 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Glycolipid, Antigen, Blood Type

Biology (Biological Sciences)
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January 18, 2019
Functions of Membrane Proteins
An important function of membrane proteins is transporting cells.
Glycolipids and glycoproteins face outward to protect the cell.
Plasma membrane of an animal cell.
Human RBC plasma membrane
RBC= Red Blood Cell
RBC contain the protein hemoglobin
Essential for gas transport in the body (hemoglobin transports O2 and CO2
bound to its heme groups.
Red blood cells are larger than capilleries which is why it is essential that are
RBC with experimental nanoparticles
Nanoparticles can deliver medicine to a specific target using the RBC as a vehicle.
Surface Molecule
Surface molecules can have antigenic properties
Antibodies target antigens
Particles on the surface that have carbohydrates but can also be proteins,
generate antibodies that attack foreign cells and remove them.
Glycolipids as antigens
In RBC we have antigens called glycolipids (no phosphate rather a sugar with 4
or 5 carbons)
These antigens make our system of blood typing possible
Almost everyone has one or more of these antigens.
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H (almost everyone has the H-antigen)
The A, B and O alleles
O, recessive: a single guanine deletion encodes a non-functional enzyme.
The O type has no antigen
Codes for a non-functional enzyme
The non-working enzyme is recessive (need to pairs of alleles to be
A, co-dominant: encodes the enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine transfer ase.
B, co-dominant: encodes the enzyme D-galatose transfer ase.
Blood typing
Glycolipids on surface of RBC membrane, are responsible for controlling the
production of this antigen.
Integral membrane proteins as antigens
A specific primary structure of Rh transmembrane protein is responsible for the D
Most people have the D antigen
The D antigen gives the positive sign to the blood types
Gives the Rh factor its (+) sign
Its function is otherwise unknown.
Plant Cell Membrane
Because plant cells have a cell wall, their cell membranes have fewer glycolipids and
Plant Cell Membranes use a different Steroid
B-Sitosterol serves the same purpose as cholesterol in animals
Plants do not use cholesterol instead they use B-Sitosterol.
Ergosterol is used in fungi, which serves the same function of cholesterol
All of them have a hydroxyl group which orients the molecule in the right way.
Prokaryote Cell Plasma Membrane
PM: Plasma Membrane, essentially a phospholipid bilayer
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