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Lecture 7

BIOL107 Lecture 7: Prokaryotic Cell Interiors

Biology (Biological Sciences)
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Biol 107-Lecture 7-Prokaryotic Cell Interiors
Prokaryotic Cell Interiors
70% of the cell “contents” is water
Cytoplasm-everything inside the plasma membrane.
Cytosol-the fluid inside the plasma membrane. Some solutes are in the cytosol,
but aren’t part of the plasma membrane.
Chromosome (feature of the cell)
Circle of double stranded DNA (0.5-7.0Mb long) and most bacteria have 1 copy
per cell
The strand is not open-ended and when it’s untangled, it would be a loop. There
are some exceptions.
The chromosome contains all the genetic information needed to function and
Every structure in a cell is encoded in the chromosome
Chromosomes are replicated during cell divisions
The main function of the DNA is having a portion of gene which is transferred to
RNA for the making of proteins.
The chromosome may be accompanied by some RNA and protein are contained
in the nucleoid which is like the nucleus of animal cell except that it has no
They’re usually small but can be quite large also.
They are circular dsDNA but are independent of the chromosome and replicate
Can be 1-1000 copies of the same plasmid per cell
They also carry at least one gene that regulates its own copy
There are 2 different types of plasmids which are R-plasmids and F-plasmids
The R-plasmids confer the resistance of the bacteria to antibiotics. The F-
plasmids confer the ability to transfer plasmids through the use of sex pili
However, some R-plasmids also encode the information to make a sex pili and
the F-plasmids also have the R-plasmids in it.
Bacteria with the F-plasmids can copy themselves over to a new host which can
then produce the R-plasmidsthis plays a big role in the spread of resistance of
antibiotics among bacteria.
A cell can have more than one type of plasmid only if they’re compatible, but
some cells aren’t compatible so they can’t coexist together.
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