Class Notes (806,815)
Canada (492,451)
BIOL108 (150)

Prokaryotes+Eukaryotes+Plants Vocab

7 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Alberta
Biology (Biological Sciences)
Heather Proctor

VOCAB: Prokaryotes+Eukaryotes+Plants • Prokaryote: Type of organism, includes Bacteria and Archea 1) No true nucleus: instead, nucleoid region 2) Plasmids: small rings of DNA that contain "extra" gene information 3) Do not use meiosis or mitosis to reproduce + transfer genes 4) Mode of vertical gene transfer: ▪Binary fission: double DNA material (duplicate chromosomes), then split cell into two with same DNA as parents Modes of horizontal gene transfer (one reason why antibiotic resistance can spread so quickly) ▪Transformation: uptake of "naked" DNA released from dead bacteria by a living bacterium ▪Transduction: transport of DNA between bacterial cells by viruses (bacteriophages): mistake by virus, should have injected some of its own DNA, but instead injected a chunk of a bacteria's DNA ▪Conjugation: When one bacterium latches onto another with a string-like structure (pillus): unidirectional process 5) Cell wall: includes peptidoglycan (not cellulose as in eukaryotes, or chitin as in fungi) ▪maintains fluid equilibrium (In hypotonic solution, cell does not explode, in hypertonic solution, plasmolysis still occurs ▪Gram +: Thick peptidoglycan outer layer traps purple stain ▪Gram -: Extra outer layer of lipopolysaccharides (cell membrane) that cover the thin peptidoglycan inner layer, shows up as pink (stain doesn't stick) ▪Often more pathogenic than Gram +, because the lipopolysaccharide layer can contain toxins and resist action of antibiotics 6) Motility: through flagella for example 7) Demonstrate taxes (sing. taxis): Movement away from or towards stimulus 8) Lack membrane-bound organelles 9) Much smaller than eukaryotes (1-5 um vs. 10-100 um) • Metabolism: Chemical pathways used by living organisms to build up molecules (anabolism) or to break down molecules to release energy (catabolism) ◦ 3 needs; ▪water ▪carbon source ▪energy source •Photoautotrophs: Use light energy and CO2 to metabolize (eg. plants) •Chemoautotrophs: Use energy obtained by oxidizing inorganic chemicals, and CO2 •Photoheterotrophs: Use light energy, but get carbon from organic materials •Chemoheterotrophs: Use organic molecules for both energy and carbon sources (eg. animals) • Archaea Kingdom: ◦ Lack peptidoglycan cell wall ◦ Do not respond to antibiotics that inhibit eubacterial growth ◦ Often extremophiles (“I too like to live dangerously”) • Methanogens: Type of archaea that live in oxygen-free habitats, produce methane as waste product, eg. in cow guts • Halophiles: Type of archaea that live in very salty habitats • Thermophiles: Type of archaea that live in very hot habitats (note: many are chemoautotrophs) • Types of bacteria: ◦ Proteobacteria: Large and metabolically-diverse group of Gram - bacteria ▪ Include endosymbiotic mutualists like Rhizobium (live in roots of leguminous plants, fix atmospheric nitrogen and in return host plant gives Rhizobium carbohydrates) ▪ Also includes causative agents of cholera and ulcers ▪ E. coli ◦ Chlamydias: can only live within the cells of animals, no peptidoglycan in cell wall ▪ Chlamydias trachomatis ◦ Spirochaetes: long helical bacteria that swim by spiralling ▪ Syphilis and Lyme disease ◦ Gram + Bacteria (group): Only group with gram + bacteria, but also includes a lot of gram - species ▪ Decomposers ▪ Mycoplasmas ▪ Anthrax-->have resistant endospore state ▪ Clostridium botulinum: causes botulism, also fly larvae that eat decomposing matter with C. botulinum-->waterfowls eat them & die ▪ Botox ◦ Cyanobacteria: (aka. blue-green algae) photoautotrophs that produce oxygen like plants, sometimes fix nitrogen • Primary producers: Organisms that support the food chain at the most basic level • Thermus aquaticus: (Taq) from hot springs, can retain activity at very high temperatures and used in PCR • Mutualism: Both species benefit from the relationship, eg. honeyguide leads honey badger to hive, breaks it open, both eat honey, or clown fish and anemone • Competition: Both species suffer from each other's presence, eg. cow and horse both graze on same patch of grass • Predation: A eats B, tiger eats antelope • Parasitism: One benefits, the other suffers, caterpillar eats part of plant without killing it • Commensalism: A lives on or with B, but neither harms nor benefits B, eg. bird living in the shelter of a tree without harming the tree • Amensalism: A harms B, B does nothing for A, eg. cow steps on a snail • Symbiotic relationship: When two members of a species live in close, often obligatory contact with each other, may involve parasitism, mutualism, commensalism. Involves the host and the symbiont. If symbiont is inside host, called endosymbiotic relationship • Eukaryotic cell: ◦ DNA in linear chromosomes in membrane-bound nucleus ◦ Membrane-bound organelles ◦ Usually much larger than prokaryotes • Endosymbiosis of aerobic heterotrophic prokaryote: swallowing of proteobacterium/cyanobacterium by eukaryotes, to become mitochondria or chloroplasts ◦ Evidence: ▪ Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own DNA, which they replicate independently of the cell's DNA ▪ DNA is circular like in prokaryotes ▪ Plastids have 2 or more cell membrane layers ◦ Primary endosymbiosis: The taking in of bacterium by a eukaryote ◦ Secondary endosymbiosis: The taking in a eukaryote by a eukaryote • Waves of diversification: ◦ 1st: metabolic diversification of prokaryotes ◦ 2nd: structural diversification of eukaryotes ◦ 3rd: appearance of multicellular bodies in eukaryotic lineages ◦ other wave of important change arose from the development of new ways of reproduction (mitosis, meiosis and syngamy) • Mitosis: One diploid cell divides once to form two diploid cells • Meiosis: (reproductive division) One diploid cell divides twice to produce 4 haploid cells/gametes • Syngamy: The fusion of two haploid gametes • Zygote: diploid fertilized egg, after lots of mitotic cell division--> embryo • Protist: common name for mostly unicellular eukaryotes that are not plants, fungi or animals ◦ Single-celled protists have to exist all by themselves • Diplomonads & parabasalans: Ancient eukaryotic lineages that are thought to have evolved before the acquisition of endosymbiotic bacteria that evolved into mitochondria. Therefore, lack mitochondria. However, mitochondrial genes found in nuclear genome of both groups, and in one genus there are even small mitochondria remnants (mitosomes) suggests that had mitochondria but lost them in evolution. anaerobic. • Diplomonads: Have multiple flagella and two separate nuclei. ▪Eg. Giardia duodenalis ▪Has mitosomes • Apicomplexans: usually parasites of animals, have complex of organelles to penetrate host at apex of cell, 4 membranes and cyanobacterial DNA, yet more evidence of endosymbiosis. Often require 2 or more host species ◦eg. Plasmodium, organism that causes malaria, lives in flies, and in vertebrates. Use of insecticides and drugs have helped greatly diminish number of cases of malaria. However, resistant mosquitoes are being problematic and making these numbers rise slowly again. • Ciliates: Large and diverse group named for the abundance of cilia it has (used for locomotion and food capture) ◦ Many free-living species feed on bacteria and smaller protists by phagocytosis
More Less

Related notes for BIOL108

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.