BIOL108 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Northern Waterthrush, Linnaean Taxonomy, Binomial Nomenclature

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Week 2. 1
Topic #2: Taxonomy and Systematics
I. General Terminology
a. Nomenclature: a system of rules for naming things…can be a part of…
b. Taxonomy: the practice of naming and classifying organisms
taxo = arrange (Gk.), nomos = knowledge/science of (Gk.)
c. Systematics: the theory (and practice) of classifying organisms based on
evolutionary history ( phylogeny )
Assumes “one true phylogeny”; we use the process of systematics to try to
reveal it
d. Note: MUCH OVERLAP IN THESE TERMS!
e. Evolutionary history (phylogeny)
II. Nomenclature and “Classical” Taxonomy
A. Problems with common names
a. Different names for the same species
Common names differ among countries, languages
e.g., horse = Pferd = caballo
Problem can occur within the same language and country
e.g., Esox lucius = northern pike = jackfish
b. Same name for different species
E.g., magpie: North American species is Pica hudsonia (Corvidae);
Australian species is Gymnorhina tibicen (Cracticidae)
E.g., elk: in North America means Cervus elaphus; in Europe means Alces
alces (both Cervidae)
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