BIOL 201 Glossary.docx

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University of Alberta
Biology (Biological Sciences)
James Stafford

Biology 201 Key Terms to Know 1. Activated Mitotic Cdk-Cyclin – phosphorylates laminin proteins (depolymerization of nuclear envelope), phosphorylates condensin, and phosphorylates MT-associates proteins (spindle formation is initiated). Complex activates Anaphase Promoting Complex. 2. Adherens Junctions – continuous belt around interacting cells, typically in the epithelial cells. They are found in the apex, below the tight junction. Held together by Cadherins. 3. Anaphase – sister chromatids separate, chromatids are pulled to opposite poles via MT shortening. Anaphase promoting complex is the signal. 4. Anaphase Promoting Complex – ubiquitin ligase that targets cell proteins for degradation. Targets securin and mitotic cyclin for degradation. The destruction of securing allows separase to cleave cohesions that hold sister chromatids together. Degradation of mitotic cyclin depresses mitotic cdk activity, leading to cytokinesis, chromosome decondensation, and nuclear envelope reformation. 5. Anchoring Junctions – connect the cytoskeleton of one cell to another or to the ECM. Able to undergo severe mechanical force. 6. Angiogenesis – the physical process through which new blood vessels form. Vascular endothelial growth factor promotes pathways to get blood vessels to tissues. 7. Apaf-1 – binds to cytochrome C to form apoptosome. 8. Astral MT – anchors the chromosome to cell by extending from spindle to cell cortex. Uses dyneins. 9. Autocrine – cell secretes hormone or chemical messenger that binds to autocrine receptor on the same cell. 10. Autophagosome – formed during autophagy, it is the double layer formed around an organelle. Formation is induced by Beclin-3. 11. Autophagy – catabolic mechanism that involves cell degradation through lysosomal machinery; tissue-specific degradation of organelles. 12. Basal lamina – structural support, contains both laminin (face epithelial cells) and fibronectin (anchor the cells of connective tissue). 13. Bax – pro-apoptotic member of Bcl-2 family which migrates to surface of mitochondria and inhibits anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and causes release of cytochrome c due to pore permeabilization. 14. Bcl-2 Family – proteins involved in apoptosis 15. Benign – slow growth, non-invasive 16. CAD – cleaves genomic DNA at internucleosomal linker regions (DNA laddering) 17. Cadherin – calcium dependent adhesion molecule. Without calcium, they degrade. They are found in pairs. 18. Calcium – high concentrations in ECM and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Functions to release neurotransmitters in neurons and in contraction of skeletal and cardiac muscles. 19. Calmodulin – undergoes conformational change when calcium binds, which changes the function of a target protein.  Can be either pro-apoptotic or anti-apoptotic 20. Carcinogen – chemical that activates cancer. 21. Carcinogens & DNA – can bind to DNA and disrupt normal base pairing, generate cross-links, create chemical link between adjacent bases, can hydroxylate or remove bases, and can affect specific genes. 22. Carcinoma – epithelial cell origin. 23. Cartilage – flexible connective tissue. 24. Caspase-3 – protein of Caspase cascade which causes apoptotic blebbing, Golgi fragmentation, and nuclear fragmentation. 25. Caspase-8 – initiates Caspase cascade in extrinsic apoptotic pathway 26. Caspase-9 – activated by apoptosomes, activates Caspase-3. 27. Cell Junctions – cell-cell connections. Three types: occluding (tight), anchoring, communicating. 28. Cellulose – component of plant cell walls. 29. Chromosome translocation – part of one chromosome is physically moved to another chromosome. 30. Collagen – main component of connective tissue; provides strength. Glycine is approximately every third amino acid. 31. Collagen’s Propeptides – extensions on collagen which are removed in ECM to prevent formation of collagen in cell. 32. Connexon – channel structures within gap junctions. Formed by chance between cells. 33. Cyclic AMP Cascade – G protein activates adenylyl cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP activates protein kinases, which phosphorylate other proteins. 34. Cyclin – proteins that control the progression of the cell cycle. There are several types and they are expressed cyclically. 35. Cyclin-dependent kinases – protein kinases that bind to cyclin to become active enzymes. 36. Cytochrome C – released from mitochondria due to pro-apoptotic stimuli. CytC and Apaf-1 aggregate to form apoptosome. The apoptosome activates Caspase-9, which causes Caspase cascade. 37. Cytokinesis – Ring of actin and myosin II bisects the mitotic spindle and divides the cell into two daughter cells. 38. DAG pathway – activates protein kinase C, resulting in protein phosphorylation. Note: calcium released from IP3 can enhance activation of PKC. 39. Desmosomes – rivets cells together. Cadherin links the dense cytoplasmic plaques together. Keratin functions to hold plaques in place. 40. DNA Replication Checkpoint – monitors the state of DNA replication between G2 and M. The protein p53 inhibits formation of cdk cyclin when DNA damage exists and can activate apoptosis. 41. Dystrophin/Dystroglycan Complex – attached myofibrils to sarcolemma via attachment structure at surface of striated muscle. 42. Elastin – provides elasticity to vertebrate tissues. 43. Endocrine signals – act over long distances; glands secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. 44. Epithelial cells – line cavities and surfaces of the body, consist of basal and apical end. 45. Fas ligand (FasL) – death activator in apoptosis 46. Fibroblast – type of cell that synthesizes the ECM and collagen. 47. Fibronectin – adhesive glycoprotein; functions as bridging molecule between ECM and cells. Serves as guides for migrating cells. 48. G Protein Couples Receptors – function to activate G protein. Consists of 7 transmembrane domains. They either activate or inhibit target proteins. 49. G1 – S-phase checkpoint – passage through t
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