Biology 201 Key Terms to Know
1. Activated Mitotic Cdk-Cyclin – phosphorylates laminin proteins (depolymerization of nuclear
envelope), phosphorylates condensin, and phosphorylates MT-associates proteins (spindle
formation is initiated). Complex activates Anaphase Promoting Complex.
2. Adherens Junctions – continuous belt around interacting cells, typically in the epithelial cells. They
are found in the apex, below the tight junction. Held together by Cadherins.
3. Anaphase – sister chromatids separate, chromatids are pulled to opposite poles via MT shortening.
Anaphase promoting complex is the signal.
4. Anaphase Promoting Complex – ubiquitin ligase that targets cell proteins for degradation. Targets
securin and mitotic cyclin for degradation. The destruction of securing allows separase to cleave
cohesions that hold sister chromatids together. Degradation of mitotic cyclin depresses mitotic
cdk activity, leading to cytokinesis, chromosome decondensation, and nuclear envelope
5. Anchoring Junctions – connect the cytoskeleton of one cell to another or to the ECM. Able to
undergo severe mechanical force.
6. Angiogenesis – the physical process through which new blood vessels form. Vascular endothelial
growth factor promotes pathways to get blood vessels to tissues.
7. Apaf-1 – binds to cytochrome C to form apoptosome.
8. Astral MT – anchors the chromosome to cell by extending from spindle to cell cortex. Uses
9. Autocrine – cell secretes hormone or chemical messenger that binds to autocrine receptor on the
10. Autophagosome – formed during autophagy, it is the double layer formed around an organelle.
Formation is induced by Beclin-3. 11. Autophagy – catabolic mechanism that involves cell degradation through lysosomal machinery;
tissue-specific degradation of organelles.
12. Basal lamina – structural support, contains both laminin (face epithelial cells) and fibronectin
(anchor the cells of connective tissue).
13. Bax – pro-apoptotic member of Bcl-2 family which migrates to surface of mitochondria and
inhibits anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and causes release of cytochrome c due to pore permeabilization.
14. Bcl-2 Family – proteins involved in apoptosis
15. Benign – slow growth, non-invasive
16. CAD – cleaves genomic DNA at internucleosomal linker regions (DNA laddering)
17. Cadherin – calcium dependent adhesion molecule. Without calcium, they degrade. They are found
18. Calcium – high concentrations in ECM and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Functions to release
neurotransmitters in neurons and in contraction of skeletal and cardiac muscles.
19. Calmodulin – undergoes conformational change when calcium binds, which changes the function
of a target protein.
Can be either pro-apoptotic or anti-apoptotic
20. Carcinogen – chemical that activates cancer.
21. Carcinogens & DNA – can bind to DNA and disrupt normal base pairing, generate cross-links,
create chemical link between adjacent bases, can hydroxylate or remove bases, and can affect
22. Carcinoma – epithelial cell origin.
23. Cartilage – flexible connective tissue.
24. Caspase-3 – protein of Caspase cascade which causes apoptotic blebbing, Golgi fragmentation, and
25. Caspase-8 – initiates Caspase cascade in extrinsic apoptotic pathway
26. Caspase-9 – activated by apoptosomes, activates Caspase-3. 27. Cell Junctions – cell-cell connections. Three types: occluding (tight), anchoring, communicating.
28. Cellulose – component of plant cell walls.
29. Chromosome translocation – part of one chromosome is physically moved to another
30. Collagen – main component of connective tissue; provides strength. Glycine is approximately
every third amino acid.
31. Collagen’s Propeptides – extensions on collagen which are removed in ECM to prevent formation
of collagen in cell.
32. Connexon – channel structures within gap junctions. Formed by chance between cells.
33. Cyclic AMP Cascade – G protein activates adenylyl cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion of ATP
to cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP activates protein kinases, which phosphorylate other proteins.
34. Cyclin – proteins that control the progression of the cell cycle. There are several types and they are
35. Cyclin-dependent kinases – protein kinases that bind to cyclin to become active enzymes.
36. Cytochrome C – released from mitochondria due to pro-apoptotic stimuli. CytC and Apaf-1
aggregate to form apoptosome. The apoptosome activates Caspase-9, which causes Caspase
37. Cytokinesis – Ring of actin and myosin II bisects the mitotic spindle and divides the cell into two
38. DAG pathway – activates protein kinase C, resulting in protein phosphorylation. Note: calcium
released from IP3 can enhance activation of PKC.
39. Desmosomes – rivets cells together. Cadherin links the dense cytoplasmic plaques together.
Keratin functions to hold plaques in place.
40. DNA Replication Checkpoint – monitors the state of DNA replication between G2 and M. The
protein p53 inhibits formation of cdk cyclin when DNA damage exists and can activate apoptosis. 41. Dystrophin/Dystroglycan Complex – attached myofibrils to sarcolemma via attachment structure
at surface of striated muscle.
42. Elastin – provides elasticity to vertebrate tissues.
43. Endocrine signals – act over long distances; glands secrete hormones directly into the
44. Epithelial cells – line cavities and surfaces of the body, consist of basal and apical end.
45. Fas ligand (FasL) – death activator in apoptosis
46. Fibroblast – type of cell that synthesizes the ECM and collagen.
47. Fibronectin – adhesive glycoprotein; functions as bridging molecule between ECM and cells.
Serves as guides for migrating cells.
48. G Protein Couples Receptors – function to activate G protein. Consists of 7 transmembrane
domains. They either activate or inhibit target proteins.
49. G1 – S-phase checkpoint – passage through t