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BIOL 207 (09/06/13) - Mitosis, Meiosis, and Life Cycles Con't

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University of Alberta
Biology (Biological Sciences)
Mike Harrington

BIOL 207: Lecture Notes (September 6, 2013) Mitosis, Meiosis, and Life Cycles  Humans have 46 chromosomes (‘2n’) o Our gametes have 23 ('n’)  In each chromosome set, the # of unique chromosomes is given symbol ‘x’. Chromosome Cell Type Sets gametes x = 23 embryo to 2x = 46 adult o Cells that are ‘n’ are haploid o Cells that are ‘2x’ are diploid Amount of DNA  The amount of DNA in a gamete cell = ‘c’  In humans: Cell Type Amount gamete c = 3100Mb typical cell @ G1 2c = 6200Mb typical cell @ G2 4c = 12400Mb  NOTE: o bp = base pair o 1000bp = Kb o 1000000 = Mb Number of Genes  The number of genes in a haploid cell = “The Genome”  In humans: # of Protein Organelle Encoding Genes # of Functional RNA encoding genes nucleus ~ 21000 ~ 6000 mitochondria 13 24 Eukaryotic Life Cycle Mechanisms a) Cell division of diploid (2n) cells = mitosis b) Cell division of haploid (n) cells = mitosis c) Haploid (n)  “diploid” (2n) = fertilization d) Diploid (2n)  haploid (n) = meiosis  In mitosis, the # of chromosomes/
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