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BIOL 207 (09/09/13) - (End of) Mitosis, Meiosis, and Life Cycles & (Start of) Chromosomes During Cell Cycle

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Biology (Biological Sciences)
Mike Harrington

BIOL 207 – Lecture Notes (September 9,2013) Mitosis, Meiosis, and Life Cycles Con’t & Chromosomes During the Cell Cycle  DNA is wound around histome proteins  When fertilization occurs, the pronuclei of both the sperm and the egg connect BUT do not fuse together Pronucleus – a gametic nucleus (of either gender)  After an egg is fertilized, it goes through 4 synchronized cell divisions giving rise to an 16 cell mass that has differentiated into two types of cell mass. (Inner cell mass and the trophectoderm) o The cells inside this mass continue to divide until a blastocyst has been created:  Humans “hatch” before being implanted into the uterine wall  The fluid-filled space between the placenta and the embryo is called the amniotic cavity Here is a comparison chart that will be elaborated upon afterwards: Property Animals Plants Fungi Separate males Male and female parts on Sexes + females each organism Many types Do haploid cells reproduce? No Yes Yes Cell and nuclear Single- fusion event (not n --> 2n fertilization Double fertilization fertilization) An example in regards to the plant column: A diagram in regards to the fungi column: Twins  Dizygotic (fraternal) o Can have separate placenta and extra-embryonic membrane or a fused placenta and extra-embryonic membrane o A result of two separate eggs fertilized by different sperm  Monozygotic (identical) o
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