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Lecture 7

BIOL 207 (September 25, 2013) Lecture 7: Consequences of Ge..
BIOL 207 (September 25, 2013) Lecture 7: Consequences of Gene Mutation | Lecture 8: Usefulness of gene Mutation

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University of Alberta
Biology (Biological Sciences)
Mike Harrington

BIOL 207 (September 25, 2013) Lecture 7: Consequences of Mutation | Lecture 8: Usefulness of Gene Mutations Mutations in Multicellular Organisms Somatic mutations – mutant tissue continues to divide until there is a sector of mutation that doesn’t affect the reproductive organs Germline mutations – mutation that occurs in a gamete or precursor cell; individual itself is not affected by this mutation Precursor cell – blast cell (partially differentiated cell)  Mutations stay with the individual as long as it doesn’t compromise viability  Mutations stay within a germ line as long as it doesn’t affect fertility  A flower mutation causes it to turn pink from white. Is this a germ line or somatic mutation? It is both! Mutations in Human Genes  Happened before origin of humans o Humans’ lack of hair caused by a mutation of a hair gene that resulted in the creation of a ϕ gene (a gene that is there but doesn’t do anything = pseudogene)  Single base pair mutation CGA  TGA  CGA = Arginine  TGA = STOP codon!  That’s why humans have less hair than other primates!  Happened many generations ago o Sickle cell mutation  Protects against malaria  But is negatively impacts the functional extent of red blood cells  Happened in a parent’s germ line  Happened in a somatic cell o Eg. Cancer  Note that THERE ARE NO DISEASE GENES  Gene BRCA1 is called the “Breast Cancer Gene” but it doesn’t cause breast cancer! Its job is to make DNA repair enzymes o Only after mutation of certain alleles in this gene, will it cause familial breast cancer Mutations Between Human Genes  This is where most mutations occur  Individual is unaffected  We care about them though because they are useful for: o Gene mapping o DNA fingerprinting o Genetic testing  Mutations can include: o Short tandem repeats (STR)  Base pair array repetitions w/ different numbers of repetitions (Start of) Lecture 8: Usefulness of Gene Mutations  Clicker Question: o How do you say 12p12?  Twelve-p-one-two Evolution  DNA replication and maintenance is not 100% exact o Usually, that’s okay! o For a species, these arising changes al
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