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Lecture 4

BIOL 207 (09/16/13) Lecture 4 - Genes and Chromosomes | Lecture 5 - Genes Encode Proteins

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Biology (Biological Sciences)
Mike Harrington

BIOL 207 (September 16, 2013) [Lecture 4 – Genes and Chromosomes] & [Lecture 5: Genes Encode Proteins]  Alternating between diploid and haploid produced new and possibly more favourable allele combinations.  Example: START OF LECTURE 5: Genes Encode Proteins Garrod – Genes encode enzymes  Before this point in time, it was understood that genes control heredity and that enzymes catalyze reaction  Garrod studies alkaptonuria (associated to Arthritis and black urine) o From his study, he concluded that the enzyme that breaks down HA in humans normally must be defective in people with black urine  Gene creates this enzyme  BUT this enzyme is not being produced  Conclusion: this gene must be defective Beadle and Tatum – One gene-one enzyme  Common knowledge before this time was that genes create proteins.  Experiment conducted on orange bread mold: o Normal strains are called prototrophic  Require carbon source and energy source to survive  Can grow on minimal media (MM) o Defective strains are called auxotrophic  All organic molecules needed for survival  Need to grow on complete media (CM) o Process:  Auxotrophic strains created by subjecting an isolated prototrophic strain (wild type strain) to DNA damaging agents (mutagens) and then collected.  Each of the mutant strains was unable to produce a certain molecule critical for survival  Example of what happened to mutant orange bread moldd:
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