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Lecture 4

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Biology (Biological Sciences)
Mike Deyholos

BIOL207 B01 Lec04 2014-01-13 CHAPTER 3: Mendelian Genetics Flower color… purple form/ white form; yellow/ green pods; round/ wrinkled seeds; long/ short pods; Mendel came up with these alternative traits. A. Definitions a. locus: (plural loci) a position on a chromosome; may contain a gene; locus = location = position, may contain a gene, a position on a chromosome b. alleles: alternative versions of the same gene; a gene for flower color  while allele/ purple allele c. homozygote: two copies of the same allele (in a diploid); AA, aa d. dominant: allele whose phenotype is seen in both the homozygote & heterozygote; based on the phenotypes; if we see that a single allele is dominant, it is the capital letter (e.g. AA, Aa both make purple phenotype). e. If you compare a homozygote to a heterozygote, then the recessive homo will have different alleles; f. recessive: allele whose phenotype is seen only in one homozygote; there are alternatives to recessivity; in incomplete dominance heterozygotes are a blend of two colors (A1A1 = red,A2A2 = white;A1A2 = pink) g. semi-dominant: (= incomplete dominance); hetz is intermediate between two homz; h. co-dominant: hetz has the phenotype of both hoz parents simultaneously; different from semi-dominance because both homozygote phenotypes are present at the same time; i. The I locus controls blood type; if you have an I I or I i allele, you will haveAblood, if you have I I , you will have both blood types present. The ii allele is homo recessive . j. wild-type (wt): the allele, genotype, or phenotype that is found most often in natural populations; geneticists use wildtype to avoid using normal; in homo recessive, you have no good copies of the gene, so the flower is white because no pigment containing DNAare present; based on the evidence that it is dominant, we can infer that the wildtype allele is haplosufficient k. haplosufficient: one wt allele produces enough product to have same phenotype as two wt alleles;
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