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BIOL 208 (January 20, 2014) - "-therms", Energy Source and Capture

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Biology (Biological Sciences)
James Cahill

BIOL 208 (January 20, 2014) • Ectotherms o H ss highly reliant on Hcdconduction), H cvonvection), and H r • Endotherms o H is highly reliant on H (metabolism) s m o Cold temperatures = higher metabolic rate o Hot temperatures = higher metabolic rate  How? This is counterintuitive… • Sweating and panting take energy to bring down the temperature o Most endotherms can deal with higher decreases in temperature increases in temperature • Q 10change in ecological process by increase/decrease of 10 degrees. o Body temperature is optimized already to speed up biological reactions (too big of an increase in temperature would be detrimental because it would lead to denaturing of biological macromolecules • Extreme temperatures: o What is hibernation:  Metabolism goes down for a prolonged period of time  Essentially no activity o Estivation is opposite (hibernating at hot temperatures underground) o Torpor  Found in hummingbirds.  Lose so much energy that it is hard to maintain energy at night • Can’t feed at night so they go through hypothermia for hours until the morning (body temperature drops in that time) o Death  Is an adaptation in some cases to extreme temperatures • Maintenance stopped • And assigned to growth, reproduction, and activity • Short lifespan to maximize offspring o Migration Energy Sources and Capture • Trophic biology o Different types of ways of feeding o Autotroph  use inorganic molecules as sources of carbon and energy  Photosynthetic autotrophs  Chemosynthetic autotrophs • In the Earth’s mantle… o Sulfur is the main source of energy o Not much is known about them o Heterotroph  use organic molecules as sources of carbon and energy  Essentially have to feed on things that were alive at one point in time o There is more heterotroph diversity and autotroph diversity. BUT autotroph abundance is greater than heterotroph abundance • Photosynthesis o Photosynthetically activ
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