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BIOL 208 (January 31, 2014) - Hutchisonian Niche

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Biology (Biological Sciences)
James Cahill

BIOL 208 (January 31, 2014) Principle of Allocation • The amount of energy available to each organism is limited • When energy is allocated to one function. It reduces the energy available for other functions Energy Budgets • Growth • Maintenance • Activity • Reproduction o Smallest energy allocation The Hutchinsonian niche • Grinnell and Elton o Pre-Hutchinson o They had a pretty good idea what a niche was  Grinnel: Talked about the impact of the abiotic environment  Elton: Talked about biological interactions between other organisms • Hutchinson o Combined Grinnel and Elton’s ideas o An n-dimensional hypervolume  3D is the highest dimension that can be shown visually • “n” is the number of environmental factors important to survival and reproduction • Match what you find in the environment and compare it with the niche of an organism to see if it would be a good fit Fundamental niche • Physical condition under which a species might live in the absence of interactions with other species o Ex. Upper and lower lethal temp superimposed with upper and lower lethal salinity  Middle areas of both conditions = best environment for organism to live in (potentially) Realized niche – conditions that an organism actually lives in Fundamental niche – high limit in which an organism can hypothetically live in without regard for interactions between other organisms Classical Example of Fundamental Niche – MacArthur’s Warblers • It looked like coexisting of birds that live in the same way in the same place • What he did, a study: o Spent time in forest and mapped where the birds were  When were they active  Where did they reside in a tree o To see if conditions actually overlapped MacArthur’s warblers – Realized Niche • Certain birds spent more time in c
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