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BIOL 208 (February 3, 2014) - "r" and "K" Selection, Species Distribution and Abundancies

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Biology (Biological Sciences)
James Cahill

BIOL 208: (February 3, 2014) • “r” selection o High growth rate o Competitive ability is not strongly favoured o Rapid development o Early reproductive maturity o Small body size o Single reproduction event (semelparity)  Die right after reproduction • All maintenance energy is allocated to reproduction o Many, small offspring • “K” selection o Competitive ability is strongly favoured o Slow development o Late reproductive maturity o Large Body Size o Repeated reproduction events (iteroparity) o Few and large offspring. • Categorizing Plant Life History (Life History Strategies - Triangle) o Competitive, ruderal, stress tolerant  Competitive species such as birch predominate of low disturbance and low stress  Stress tolerant species predominate under conditions of low disturbance and high stress  Ruderals are dominant under conditions of high disturbance and low stress • Species distributions and abundances o Size and density relationships  Trends: • Many aquatic invertebrates live at higher population densities than other animals of comparable size • Mammals tend to live at higher populations densities than birds • The larger the body size the lower the population density o Related to metabolism (as you increase in size, your metabolic costs increase exponentially so you need more room for resource gathering) o Describing populations  Population = a group of individuals of a single species inhabiting a specific area • Characteristics: o Abundance, Density (absolute and ecological), Distribution  Abundance – number of individuals • Estimating of: o Flying insects are harder to detect (have to use a net to capture them)  Pollinators are harder… need to use traps (biased way but it is the only way) o Land animals are easier to collect abundance information of (tagging)  Tranquilizers have relatively high mortality  Density – number of individuals per unit area
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