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BIOL 208 (April 2, 2014) - Landscape Ecology, Conservation, Fragmentation

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University of Alberta
Biology (Biological Sciences)
James Cahill

BIOL 208 - Landscape Ecology – CH21 (April 2, 2014) • Landscape Ecology – The study of the relationship between spatial heterogeneity and ecological processes across multiple spatial scales o Adjacent surrounding area has an impact on the ecosystem in question • Landscape Structure o Creating landscapes  *Glacier and fire = major factors in landscape creation • Tree burning only near urban areas; remote areas are left alone  economy is factor o *This is bad. Some coniferous trees have cones that are sealed shut… can only open to disperse seeds when subjected to lots of dry heat that they get from forest fires.  Canada was originally covered by two major ice sheets • Gap between the two = modern-day Cypress Hills o Has species that are only found farther south of that space (disjointed species)  *Ecosystem Engineers • Ex. beavers o Alter flow of stream o Alter successional pattern of land plants • Ex. humans via agriculture o *Only 5% of Aspen park region is preserved… the rest has been converted to urban/agricultural land • *Grasslands are the most modified (by humans) biomes in the world  modified landscape has been internalized o Patches in matrix  *Described by: Size, shape, composition, number, position (near or far apart from each other or other aspects of that system)  *Analogous to fruit-containing jello  jello = matrix; fruit = patches • Landscape Processes o Patch size:  Ex. a study showed that if rodents are in a large patch, they are less likely to go somewhere further away; if they are in small patch, they are more likely to travel further in search of better patches  *Important for keeping li
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