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BIOL 208 (April 7, 2014) - Conservation Medicine: Integrating Ecology with Health

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Biology (Biological Sciences)
James Cahill

BIOL 208: Conservation Medicine: Integrating ecology with health (April 7, 2014) • Overview o History of terminology  Disease and medicine, disease ecology, Darwinian and evolutionary medicine, conservation medicine • Conservation medicine: conservation of wildlife is beneficial for public health o Moving beyond the ‘host’ as a means to understand/improve public health  Old School: explanation = pairwise interaction (e.g. food) • General Topics: o Disease/parasitic transfer among farms and wildlife  Many organisms are farmed, and they share pathogens with wild species  Potential of spread from (alternative hosts): • Farm to wild • Wild to farm • Both are BAD!  Common examples: • Brucellosis (bison in Wood Buffalo, Yellowstone) • Shared diseases amount honey bees and wild bee populations o Going to disappear:  Major cause: • Climate change • Habitat loss • *Movement of farm bees from barn to barn (susceptible to diseases  artificially high population of susceptible bees that are exposed to many different wild bees) • Atlantic salmon in the Pacific o BC Farms occupied 1,191ha in 2001; 4275 in 2009  GROWING! o Produced 76100 tonnes of salmon in 2009 nd o 2 biggest (legal) export o Supplies 2100 jobs (direct), and up to 4000 more (indirect) o Typical fish farm density = up to 20000 fish in a 15m- sq open net pen  Extremely high concentration of susceptible hosts o The problem:  *Farms located in narrow waters  *Wild species must “run the shoot” as juveniles  *SEA LICE  only target salmon • 2-4 can kill a juvenile • Result  population crashes  Do farms actually increase transmission, putting wild populations at risk? o *The first strong study  “Classic” ecological design  Count lice on small fish at different distances from the farms to see if there is a corre
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