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BIOL 208 (April 9, 2014) - Ecology, conservation, and economics

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Biology (Biological Sciences)
James Cahill

BIOL 208 – Ecology, conservation, and economics (April 9, 2014) • Societal development and conservation o Land use and societal development (Figure 23.16)  Shows how human use land based on stage of development  Most protected areas are modified from natural areas • The functioning is not natural o *Human impacts and GDP (23.3)  *Poorer countries: earlier stage of land use; stressors are more localized rather than regional  *Richer countries: stressors on whole communities and population due to pollution and climate change o US GDP and species at risk  *Positive correlation between GDP and number of threatened/endangered species • *Higher economic development associated with higher harm to biodiversity  Same with Canada  increasing GDP  Starts in 1972: when “Endangered Species Act” has gone into effect o Current Situation  Human appropriation of NPP (Net Primary Productivity) • *NPP = What proportion of plant growth to people take o Which parts of the world do people exploit the environment the most?  Prairie Provinces of Canada -3  East US -3  India -1  China (mainly east)-2  Europe -2 o *This exploitation is approaching carrying capacity… a real problem  *Population of India and China are surpassing carrying capacity because of how much they exploit the environment.  *Populations of North America have really high exploitation but our populations are nowhere close to that of India and China… why? • Because a lot of what we exploit is exported • *100% NPP not possible • *Negative NDP is possible…. How? o Irrigation for agriculture in deserted which would normally have a really low NDP.  Agricultural Footprint (23.16) • *There is a decrease in agricultural footprint in NE US… why? o *Nutrient depletion of soil o *More urbanization o *Less need for agriculture here which used to be a major agriculture hub when settlers first came to America  *Now forest cover is increasing • *Agriculture has the single biggest impact on biodiversity and health of communities o *Urbanization has less of an impact  % of Marine NPP required to support fisheries • 1950  2005 o *Europe and southeast Asia were initial where fisheries were situated. o *2005: We have a HUGE increase in marine exploitation  SE Asia is almost maxed out regarding how much marine exploitation has occurred  Lots of marine exploitation in the Pacific ocean in general  Projections • Future Scenarios: Forests o *Many different assumptions made… we have no idea what will actually happen  Some pred
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