BIOL 332 Entire Term Notes

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Biology (Biological Sciences)
Anne Mc Intosh

Biology 332 Lecture Notes 16122013 11000 PM IntroductionLecture OneCommunity EcologyStudy of patterns in diversity abundance and composition of species in communities and the processes that underlie them Descriptionquantification of natural assemblages of different species and interactions among them in space and time Traditionalfocused on trophic level interactions Ecosystem viewdynamic interactions between animals and their effects on plants Assemblages of plants animals bacteria and fungi that live in an environment and interact the biotic part of the ecosystemCommunityA community can be defined as a collection of organisms that exists at a particular location at a particular time Includes all taxonomic groups at a location including plants fungi herbivores microbes etc Communities are also characterized by ecological interactions among species which influences the types and number of species found at a location Include plants animals and microbes Lecture TwoEcological UnitsGenesSpeciesPopulationsCommunityEcosystem Measures of Species DiversityAlpha local richnessnumber of species in a given localitysample Beta species turnoverrate of species change between localitieshabitatisGamma regional richnesstotal number of species across a broad regionProperties of a CommunityScale o The size of a communityo A community can be any size as long as it is well defined Spatial and Temporal Structure o Spatialthe way species are distributed relative to each othero Temporalthe timing of the appearance and activity of species Species Richnesso Richnessthe number of species in a community It is sensitive to sampling function of area whos looking effort etco Diversitythe number of species in the community and their relative abundance more ways to measureTrophic Structure o The interaction among species of different trophic levels Succession and Disturbance o Communities change with timeo Ecological successionthe predictable change in species over timeo Each new set of species modifies the environment to enable the establishment of other specieso Disturbances stress and predation can mediate resource availability affecting species interactions and coexistencePattern and ProcessPatternwhat we can observe directly Vegetation zonation species lists seasonal distribution of activity and association of certain species Process gives rise to pattern Patternherbivory competition predation risk nutrient availability patterns of disturbance energy flow history and evolutionProcesses that Can Change Distribution Diversity and AbundanceSpeciationDispersal DriftSelection How a Species Pool Changes Over TimeDelta SspeciationdispersalextinctionExtinction can be stochastic random eg drift or deterministic selectionbased Niche StructureHow many potential ecological niches occur how they resemble or differ and how the species occupying different niches interact An ndimensional hypervolume of environmental conditions and resources that define the requirements for a species to live and persist the ecological space of a species A species has the potential to make space for other species too Survival growth reproduction optimal When the environmental gradient overlaps well with the niche then this is optimal Lecture ThreeNicheFundamental Nichefull range of abiotic and biotic conditions and resources for a species to survive and reproduce Realized Nichenarrower ecological space due to interspecific interactions set of conditions under which it occurs in natureNiche DifferentiationCompletive exclusion Resource partitioning Results in differentiation of realized niche Reduces competition and increases species diversity Competing species are more likely to coexist when they use resources in different waysPossible OutcomesExtinctionBehaviouralStructural resource partitioning Interspecific character displacement o Allopatricgeographic speciation o Sympatricshare geographic area Black Box of Community EcologyThe concept that all the processes enter into a black box and are observed as complex patternsInteractions Within a CommunityNeutralno direct interaction is this even possible o Neutralism 00Ecological Facilitationgenerally beneficial for at least on partner or lacking a negative effecto Commensalism 0o Mutualism Antagonismat least one partner is negatively affectedExploitationone benefits at the expense of anothero Contramensalism includes predation herbivory parasitism and parasitoidismo Amensalism 0 o CompetitionCommensalism
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