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Chem 101 Lecture 1

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Yoram Apelblat

Atomic structure Part I • Historic review • Fundamental chemistry laws • Dalton’s atomic theory • Substructure of the atom • Elements, isotopes, and ions • The periodic table Early History of Chemistry ~5000 B.C. • Pottery, dyeing, early metallurgy ~1000 B.C. • Processing of various natural metals copper, iron, silver, gold (ornaments, weapons, etc.) ~400 B.C. Greeks • Matter is composed of 4 fundamental elements: fire, earth, water and air. • Democritus proposed that matter is made of indivisible particles called atomos (atoms) ~100 A.D. - 1650 Alchemists (“alchemist” comes from Arabic) • Greece, Egypt, Middle East ⇒ Europe • In early stages, influenced by the Greeks that believed that matter strives towards perfection, the alchemist sought to convert ("transmute") "lesser" metals into "pure" metals such as gold 12 and 13 Centuries – A shift from alchemy • Moving from traditional emphasis of transmutation towards moral, spiritual and philosophical transmutation Nicholas Flamel (of Harry Potter fame) (1330 - 1417?) • Philosopher's stone • Elixir of life but also promoting Christian morality and salvation 16th Century • Alchemists are turning into serious scientists • Less concern about monetary value (transmutation and conversion into gold) • Discovering various elements and preparing various compounds Paracelsus, Theophrastus Philippus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493- 1541) • To Paracelsus, alchemy meant the discovery and synthesis of compounds for medicinal use • He tries to explain solids, liquids, and gases: In every object there is: • A first principal responsible for the solid state (Salts) • A second principal responsible for its "fatty" state (Sulfur) • A third principal responsible for its smoky or fluid state (Mercury) 17th Century Robert Boyle (1627 – 1691) (considered first modern chemist) • Gas Law: PV = constant • Proposes that there are more than four elements 1774 Joseph Priestly isolated oxygen Fundamental Chemistry Laws Lavoisier (1789) Law of conservation of mass • Mass is neither created nor destroyed Proust (1799) Law of definite proportions • A given compound always has the same proportion of elements by mass (by atoms) Eg. CCl4is always 1
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