CHEM101 Lecture Notes - Nicolas Flamel, Bombast Von Hohenheim, Joseph Priestley

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Published on 11 Nov 2011
Department
Course
Atomic structure Part I
Historic review
Fundamental chemistry laws
Dalton’s atomic theory
Substructure of the atom
Elements, isotopes, and ions
The periodic table
Early History of Chemistry
~5000 B.C.
Pottery, dyeing, early metallurgy
~1000 B.C.
Processing of various natural metals copper, iron, silver, gold (ornaments,
weapons, etc.)
~400 B.C. Greeks
Matter is composed of 4 fundamental elements: fire, earth, water and air.
Democritus proposed that matter is made of indivisible particles called
atomos (atoms)
~100 A.D. - 1650 Alchemists (“alchemist” comes from Arabic)
Greece, Egypt, Middle East ⇒ Europe
In early stages, influenced by the Greeks that believed that matter strives
towards perfection, the alchemist sought to convert ("transmute") "lesser"
metals into "pure" metals such as gold
12 and 13th Centuries – A shift from alchemy
Moving from traditional emphasis of transmutation towards moral, spiritual
and philosophical transmutation
Nicholas Flamel (of Harry Potter fame) (1330 - 1417?)
Philosopher's stone
Elixir of life but also promoting Christian morality and salvation
16th Century
Alchemists are turning into serious scientists
Less concern about monetary value (transmutation and conversion into gold)
Discovering various elements and preparing various compounds
Paracelsus, Theophrastus Philippus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493-
1541)
To Paracelsus, alchemy meant the discovery and synthesis of compounds for
medicinal use
He tries to explain solids, liquids, and gases:
In every object there is:
• A first principal responsible for the solid state (Salts)
• A second principal responsible for its "fatty" state (Sulfur)
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• A third principal responsible for its smoky or fluid state
(Mercury)
17th Century
Robert Boyle (1627 – 1691) (considered first modern chemist)
Gas Law: PV = constant
Proposes that there are more than four elements
1774 Joseph Priestly isolated oxygen
Fundamental Chemistry Laws
Lavoisier (1789) Law of conservation of mass
Mass is neither created nor destroyed
Proust (1799) Law of definite proportions
A given compound always has the same proportion of elements by mass (by
atoms)
Eg. CCl4 is always 1 carbon atom for every four chlorine atoms
Dalton (1808) Law of multiple proportions
Two elements can combine to form more than one compound
For a given compound the ratio of elements can be reduced to small whole
numbers.
Eg. H2O and H2O2 are different molecules composed of the same elements
(hydrogen and oxygen)
Dalton’s atomic theory (1808, 1810, 1827)
1. Each element is made of tiny, indivisible particles called atoms. (We now
know that atoms have substructure)
2. Atoms of a given element are identical; atoms of different elements are
different. (We now know that isotopes make the structure of atoms of a given
element slightly different)
3. Compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine. A given
compound always has the same relative numbers and types of atoms.
4. Reactions involve reorganization of the atoms - change of the way they
bound together. The atoms themselves are unchanged. (Does not account for
nuclear reactions)
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