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02 Phase changes and intermolecular forces_3.pdf

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2 Dipoleinduced dipole It is caused by a molecule with permanent dipole which induces dipole on a non and I polar molecule nearbyFor exampleNonpolar compounds such as O22are slightly soluble in water ddddddddHOOOHPolarizability of nonpolar compounds London forces depend on the polarizability the ease with which a particles electron cloud can be distorted of the moleculeThe greater is the polarizability the stronger are the dispersion forcesPolarizability depends on the number of electrons available in a moleculeatomThus smaller atoms or molecules are less polarizable than larger onesFor example oo F bp219 C andBrbp59 C22 ooCF bp 129 Cand CBrbp190C 44 Significance of London dispersion forcesMelting and boiling points Nonpolar compounds usually possess low melting and boiling points when compared with polar compounds of the same molecular massBut melting and boiling points increase as molar mass of the molecule increases Solubility of different compoundsThe solubility of a solute in a solvent is dependent on the intermolecular forces of the solute and the liquid Polar compounds are normally soluble in polar solventsCompounds with hydrogen bonding are likely soluble in waterNonpolar compounds are soluble in nonpolar solventsRule of thumbLike dissolves the like6
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