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CHEM 263 (09/05/13) - Introduction and Review

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John Vederas

Chem 263 – Intro to Organic Chemistry – September 5, 2013 Notes Chemistry is the study of matter. Organic Chemistry is the study of carbon (organic) compounds. Compound: collection of molecules that are of the same type Molecules: discrete arrangement of atoms Atomic number: # of protons in an atom’s nucleus Atomic mass/weight: is the average mass of one mole of that particular atom (the combined mass of the protons, neutrons, and electrons [subatomic particles]) Molecular weight: the mass of one mole of that particular molecule (found by adding together the atomic masses/weights of the individual atoms that the molecule consists of) BASIC PRINCIPLES: - In terms of charges, ‘likes’ repel and ‘unlikes’ attract - Atoms want to end up having the same electron configurations like that of inert gases o Therefore, in molecules: 1. Stable and uncharged carbons will have 4 bonds and no lone pairs 2. Stable and uncharged nitrogens will have 3 bonds and 1 lone pair 3. Stable and uncharged oxygens will have 2 bonds and 2 lone pairs 4. Stable and uncharged halogens will have 1 bond and 3 lone pairs 5. Stable and uncharged hydrogens will ONLY have 1 bond (no lone pairs whatsoever) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ***IMPORTANT*** MAKE SURE YOU KNOW NAMES OF THE FIRST 20 ALKANES!! “-anes”: Meth-, eth- , prop-, but-, pent-, hex-, hept-, oct-, non-, dec-, undec-, dodec-, tridec-, tetradec-, pentadec-, hexadec-, heptadec, octadec-, nonadec-, and eicos-
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