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Lecture

CHEM463 Lecture Notes - Kinetic Theory Of Gases, Pneumatic Trough, Partial Pressure

Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM463
Professor
Darren De Lorey

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Molar Mass Determination
PV = (mRT/M)
Gas Densities
d = m/V = (n x M)/ V = (n/V) x M
Therefore: d = m / v = (MP/RT)
The density of gases differs from that of solids and liquids in two important ways.
1. Gas densities depend strongly on pressure and temperature, increasing as the gas
pressure increases and decreasing as the temperature increases. Densities of liquids
and solids also depend somewhat on temperature, but they depend far less on
pressure.
2. The density of a gas is directly proportional to its molar mass. No simple
relationship exists between density and molar mass for liquids and solids.
Mixture of Gases
John Dalton proposed that in a mixture, each gas expands to fill the container and
exerts the same pressure (partial pressure) that with if it were alone in a container.
This was the basis of Dalton’s law of partial pressures. It states that the total pressure of
a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the components of the mixture.
This rule also formed the basis of a shared principle.
nA/ntot = PA/Ptot = VA/Vtot = xA
The term nA/ntot is given a special name, the mole fraction of A, xA.
Collecting a gas over liquid (definition not important, but known the mathematics of it.)
Water collected in a pneumatic trough is said to be collected over water and is “wet.” It
is a mixture of two gases The desired gas and water vapour, both filling a container with
partial pressure.
KINETIC-MOLECULAR THEORY
Gas is composed of a very large number of extremely small particles (molecules or,
in some cases, atoms) in constant, random, straight-line motion)
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