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Lecture

February 6 Notes.docx

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Department
Classics
Course
CLASS102
Professor
Craig Taylor
Semester
Winter

Description
APRODITE associated with ancient goddess ISHTAR who is a war goddess the spartans kept the war aspects of APHRODITE but the rest of the greeks didnt she is accompanied by the three GRACES, always nude, stand side by side with the center one's back to us. she had four sons. most famous was EROS (by Ares or Hermes or Zeus. usually in artwork though there are family portraits of aphrodite, ares, and eros). roman: Cupid. winged. usually depicted with his mom. usually a chubby winged kid, sometimes adolescent. other sons PRIAPUS son from Dionysus. ● fertility god ● has a huge erect dick in artwork ● deformed & huge erect penis ● image usually in gardens as scarecrow god ● often on the front doors of houses (cause he brought luck and gaurded against theives) ● most of his myths are comic and obscene HERMAPHRODITUS AENEAUS PYGMALION AND GALATEA - CYPRUS was aphrodites city. one of her myths is creating the 1st prostitutes. this took place in cyprus. there was a fest for her and they didn't give her proper praise so she made them prostitutes and over time they turn into stone from shame - a man named PYGMALION, who was disgusted by these prostitutes so he sculpted a female statue and it is so beautiful that he falls in love with it. he treated it like a living female. he dresses, talks, lays with it. - eventually another fest for aphrodite occured and he asked for her to transform the statue into a real living woman. her name was given as GALATEA. - PYGMALION and GALATEA give birth to a sun named PAPHOS. That myth leads to this one: MYRRHA & CINYRAS PAPHOS has a son named CINYRAS, who has a daughter named MYRRHA, who falls in love with her father. she is disgusted with herself and tries to kill herself. the nurse stops her. the nurse is disgusted but tries to help her fulfil MYRRHA's desire to sleep with her festival. CINYRAS finds out he slept with his own daughter and is pissed. he chases her, myrrha flees to the woods, and prays to the gods to save her. the gods transform her into MYRRH TREE, which drips tears. this myth leads into the ADONIS myth MYRRHA gets pregnant from sex with her father, and gives birth after she becomes a tree. her son, ADONIS, is born from this myrrh tree. when APHRODITE sees him, she falls in love. ADONIS represented ideal male beauty in the greek world. not rippling heracles muscles, but youthful slim body. cupid also represented this when in his teenager state. ADONIS grows up and wants to hunt, which aphrodite says not to. he goes to kill a boar which belongs to ARES, its his animal. the boar of ares kills him. the boar represents ares, aphrodites regular lover, killing him. when ADONIS' blood hits the ground, a flower emerges from teh ground. aphrodite mourns him and creates a cult and annual ritual in his honour. every year, the worshippers of adonis reenact his death. adonis is associated with death and rebirth (flower is rebirth, and then every year the petals fall off and it dies). kind of etiology myth. the second version of ADONIS after he's born, aprhodite falls in love, but as a child she puts him in a box and gives him to the queen of the underworld, PERSEPHONE, for safe keeping. she peaks in the box eventually and also falls in love. when aphrodite comes to pick him up, persephone doesn't want to let him go. they both want him. so they go to zeus and ask him to determine who of the two should get Adonis. he decrees that adonis has to spend part of the year with aphrodite and half with persephone. death and rebirth. seasonal myth. there are other seasonal myths too. APHRODITE - ANCHISES - anchises is a human - bears a semi-divine child - begins with aphrodite bragging that she can make any goddess ecept athena, artemis, or hestia, fall in love with a human male. it was major downgrading for a goddess to sleep with a human male. they usually only sleep with male gods. because of her bragging, zeus makes aphrodite fall in love with a human male, a trojan prince named ANCHISES. - she disguises herself as a mortal princess and goes to anchises. when she shows up, anchises doesn't believe that she's mortal, she's too good looking. but aphrodite insists she is and they go to bed together. when he wakes up he sees oh it was a goddess and is frightened thinking it will sappen his manhood. she says no, you won't lose your manhood, but i am pregenant with your son. she says i'm taking this child, naming it AENEAS, and raise him with the help of some nymphs. when he's five, i'll return him and he can live with you. but she's really embarrassed so warns him that he better not brag about sleeping with a goddess or zeus will kick his ass. - ANCHISES brags the next day, so the gods paralyse him for high fiving his friends. - AENEAS becomes a very important figure in the trojan war. his fate was to survive the war and start a new Troy. during the way, aphrodite often intervenes to rescue her son, aeneas. *when the trojan war breaks out, the gods all take sides. aphrodite takes troy's side. - AENEAS becomes even more important in the roman period. in the imperial roman period, the romans liked the greeks a lot and wanted to connect themselves to the greek mythic past. one way to connect was to the trojan side. Aeneas was well known in Italy. after the war, his myth sizzles out and no one knows what the new troy is supposed to be. So the romans write a myth where Aeneas travels from Troy to Italy and his ancestors establish ROME, the new TROY. Julius Caesar claims Aeneas as his ancestor. so the first emperor of rome could claim that his ancestors were Aphrodite and Ares (who is the ancestor of Romulus) - so AENEAS becomes very important. he become sone of the founding fathers of Rome. MORE STORIES OF APHRODITE ATALANTA & HIPPOMENES ATALANTA as a baby was left exposed and out to die, where she was kept by a bear, and then found by hunters. she becomes a hunteress and an athlete. two things greek females typically don't do. so when atalanta was wrestling other men, she was nude, and this is why women wrren't supposed to do it. evertually she is reunited with her father. when she comes of marrying age, her father sets up a competition where someone has to beat you in a foot race to marry her. known as the RACE FOR THE BRIDE. if you win, you get the wife, if you lose, you are executed. HIPPOMENES, a devout worshipper of aphrodite, prays to help him win. she gives him three golden apples which he drops and atalanta stops to pick them up, and he wins the race. they're engaged to be married, but before the wedding, they sneak to the cave of CYBELE and defile it. for that sacrilege, the goddess turns them both into a lion and lioness. cybele is a near eastern god whose animal was lions. EROS most well known of aphrodites sons. god of homosexuality b/c he is the son of aphrodite (esp. in his more mature form, ideal masculine body) procreation, sex, etc, much like his mother often reinterpreted by philosophers like plato and socrates as an allegory. they would use him to teach lessons about the dangers and rewards of love. EROS MYTHS PSYCHE & CUPID - one of few myths with a happy ending - comes from a roman novel called "THE GOLDEN ASS" by writer Apuleius (spelling?) - A guy in greece is turned into a donkey that romes around Ancient Greece having adventures. - he hears a myth about PSYCHE, whose name means SOUL. she was the youngest of 3 daughters. she was most innocent and most beautifula nd her sisters were jealous. - some locals declared that PSYCHE cpould be more beautiful than aphrodite, which pisses aph off. - she instructs eros to go shoot an arrow at her which will make her fall in love with a monster, but he falls in love wiht her and doesn't shoot her. - eventually the two older sisters are married, but because cupid is intervening, no one can marry psyche. - king is wondering why not psyche and thinks it must be a god and goes to ask an oracle - the oracle says dress her up as a corpse, put her on a mountain top, and a monster will come get her. - as psyche is waiting on top of a mountain she falls asleep, and a wind picks her up and settles her in cupids palace in a lush valley. - then cupid marries her but doesn't let her know who he is. he sleeps with her and is always gone in the morning but she doesn't know who he is, though she has everything she wants. "ANONYMOUS BRIDEGROOM" - her sisters go looking for her. cupid tells her not to answer, cause if they meet you, they will scheme to find out who i am, and it is best you don't answer them at all. - eventually he relents and lets her go see her sister. - when she meets them, she shows them her gold and jewels and they are jealous and figure she must be wed to a god, and they want to find out which one. want psyche to find out. - cupid warns psyche that if she tries to discover who he is, he will leave her. - also, you're pregnant, and if you don't find my identity, our child will be immortal. if you do find out, he'll be regular. - after visiting the sisters over and over, they come up with a plan to get psyche to figure it out. they remind her that she is probably sleeping with a monster cause of the monster. - so she brings to bed an oil lamp, and when cupid falls asleep, she lights the lamp with dagger ready and sees him and falls in love. some of the oil falls on him and burns him. eros flees. psyche is distraught and tries to kill herself in river, but river saves her and brings her to shore. she is lamenting loss of her love. then one day she runs into the god PAN. she says don't weep, go fight for cupid. she begins scouring looking for cupid and runs into one of her sisters, and being ticked off, she gets revenge. she tells her sister that cupid is interested in her, but she has to doll herself up and jump off a mountain. she dies. she tells her other sister the same thing, who also dies. - aphrodite is pissed, so she captures psyche and has her brought to her and given impossible tasks. 1 first task: large pile of grain. sort it over night or else. an ant comes to her aid and does it for her. 2 she is then told to go to a river bank where some dangerous sheep live and to gather some of their golden wool. a reed tell her to wait till they leave and pick the loose stuff snagged on branches. 3 told to go fill a jar of Stygian waters, a stream that flowed into the underworld, the river STYX. there is a dragon that guards the entrance to the underworld. an eagle sent by zeus grabs the jar, swoops down, and fills it for her. 4 told to go to the underworld, ask persephone for a peice of her beauty, and put it in this container. she decides to throw herself off a tower, but the tower tells her not to. says take some money to pay the fairy across the river styx, here is some food for the hound, and don't look in the box after she gives you some beauty. she goes down, she gets it, on her way out, looks! it isn't beauty, it is DEADLY SLEEP! CUPID goes and rescues her though, and says stop being so curious, look what happened. cupid brings her to zeus and asks him to rattify the marriage of psyche and cupid. after doing so , aphrodite is ok with the union. and so psyche ends up becoming a goddess, and their child is born and immortal, his name is PLEASURE. and they live happily ever after. HERMAPHRODITUS & SALAMACIS hermaphroditus, a male child of aphrodite, who was loved by a nymph named Salamacis. she loved him so much that she asked not to let them ever be apart, and so they joined them and made the first HERMAPHRODITE. SAPPHO - poet who lived on Lesbos. was didcated to aphrodite. love poems dedicated to aphrodite. since she was in love with a goddess, and she lives on lesbos, we get the name LESBIAN from here. ARTEMIS daugter of ZEUS and the goddess LETO, twin brother of APOLLO. - hera was pissed and threatened humans not to let leto land on earth anywhere to give birth. but humans were not letting her. one of these refusals was in a LYDIAN VILLAGE, located near a marsh. they refused her for fear of hera. Leto asked for at least a sip of water, which they didn't let her have either, so she trasformed them all into frogs. frogs live in marshes, etiology. - eventually finds a place to bear ARTEMIS: ORTYGIA. this is her sanctuary site and prime place of worship. Apollo was born on delos. CHARACTER - goddess of wild (esp. wild animas) - huntress, virgin. when she was born she immediately went to z
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