CLASSICS Lecture Notes January 30
wife/sister of zeus
white armed hera, ox-eyed hera, doe-eyed hera, queen hera, juno
wearing diadem, holding sceptre
if you wanna sacrifie to her you give her a cow
her bird is the peacock (with the eyes of Argus from the Io myth)
sanctuaries: SAMOS (island), ARGOS. Hera was Argos' patron deity
GODDESS OF WOMEN, MARRIAGE, CHILDBIRTH, FERTILITY. associated
with fertility but more specifically FEMALE fertility, not earth
or rain etc.
not a lot of her own solo myths, but she is in lots of others.
esp if zeus sleeps with someone else, she's there punishing the
HERACLES (punishes him all his life), IO & ARGUS (hates io),
JASON & THE ARGONAUTS (likes jason), TROJAN WAR (hates trojans)
character: chaste, moral but extremely jealous
she also wears a POLOS a lot (pillbox hat)
IRIS is her messenger, often seen together in artwork. Iris is
often seen pouring drinks for gods.
TEMPLE OF HERA AT ARGOS has typical usual shape.
CHILDREN OF ZEUS & HERA
ARES, HEPHAESTUS, HEBE, EILEITHYIA. the two sons, ares and hephaestus, become key olympians.
goddess of chilbirth. role shared wtih Hera. sometimes they
merge identity of Hera and Eileithyia or straight up swap them
out for one another
goddess of youthful bloom. she was the cupbearer / waitress of
the gods. nurse of the gods. she does that for some time until
heracles dies and goes to the heavens and zeus and hera give him
HEBE as his wife.
WHEN HERACLES DIES, THE IMMORTAL PART GOES TO OLYMPUS, THE
MORTAL PART GOES TO THE UNDERWORLD. the immortal part marries
she is usually seen with a cup and chalice pouring drinks or
depicted with heracles. she doesn't have wings, thats how you
know she isn't iris.
you can tell HERACLES in sculpture by the lion skin and club.
and he's also always depicted as super buff cause he's the
when hebe retires, teh gods need a new cup bearer. he kidnaps a
trojan prince named
he transforms into an eagle, swoops down, captures him, and
brings him to olympus and makes him immortal and he's the new
waiter of he gods. he may have kidnapped him because zeus fell
in love with him.
ganymedes father, TROS, goes looking for his son. zeus feels bad
that tros is wandering around him so he gives him some
magnificent horses of the gods. sends hermes to tell him that his boy is aok, but he's serving drinks to the gods and he is
the working god's god
associated with FIRE, cause he worked with metal
in greek period, more commonly associated with creative fire.
in roman period, he was also associated with destructive fire.
in many greek myths he created wondrous things: unbreakable
chains, divine armour of achilles, shields.
associated with athena cause she was about teaching of crafts so
you could worship them together (one for building, one for
teaching how to build)
master craftsmen, strong armed, bent-legged (cause he was born
lame and deformed)
in athens, the temple of hephaestus was close to the agora (the
marketplace where the crafts would be sold)
1. hera gave birth to him alone (theogony), cause she is
ticked off that zeus gave birth to athena unaided.
retailiation. "unaided". in this version he is born lame so
he is cast out of olympus for his deformity. a little while
later, hephaestus makes her a beautiful throne and whne she
sits in it, his unbreakable invisible chains grab her. she
isn't freed till he is allowed back into olympus 2. son of hera and zeus (iliad). he is cast out for his
deformity but theres another version where zeus is arguing
with hera and hephaestus sides with hera and zeus boots him
out. later he's accepted back and celebrated among the gods.
seen holding hammer or anvil or tongs. in literature he's
accompanied by the cyclopes, who help him build stuff. sometimes
on winged chariot to get back to olympus. sometimes on donkey.
HEPHAESTUS WIFE: APHRODITE
- strange union because hephaestus was deformed and aphrodite
was the most beautiful. different versions why: hera and zeus
felt bad for kicking him out so they gave him aphrodite. another
one is zeus tries to sleep with aphrodite who says no so he
makes her marry hephaestus.
- aphrodite gets around. seen with hephaestus brother, ARES all
- helius goes and tells hephaestus aphrodite is sleeping with
- hephaestus makes invisible chains again over the bed, fakes a
vacation, when aph and ares hit the hay, the net gets em all
naked and in the act and splayed for all to see.
- hephaestus gets all the gods and goddesses to see them to
shame them. hermes says that doesn't look that bad, i wish i was
trapped there forever.
- he demands the bridal gifts, which signals the divorce. he
won't let them out.
- poseidon convinces him to and the two separate.
- ares flees to thrace (his primary region) and aphrodite goes
to cyprus (where she was taken after emerging from the sea
foam), which is her spot.
- you rarely see aphrodite depicted with hephaestus, you usually
see her with ARES. EROS (cupid) is usually flying around his
mom, aphrodite. many versions of who cupid's dad is (one version is ares).
war good. "butcher" "boar"
aphrodite is often the cult partner, worshipped together
the greek attitudes to ares were not super positive
ares was not popular
greeks were always at war but they didn't like it. most greeks
looked to athena for worship, she was patron deity of most
but the romans LOVED MARS. they were also at war but they were
expanding their empire. they would often keep the wealth from
sacking conquered lands in teh roman temple of mars.
in rome, his temple was MARS ULTOR (mars the avenger) and this
is where the spoils were placed to thank mars.
OTHER DIVINE CHILDREN OF ZEUS
zeus had plenty of kids not with hera
a lot of semi divine too
mom: MNEMOSYNE "memory"
goddesses who inspired those in the arts
associated with APOLLO
examples: CALLIOPE muse of epic. CLIO muse of history. THE MANY AFFAIRS OF ZEUS
THEMIS: fates aka moirai
● CLOTHO the spinner
● LACHESIS the measurer
● ATROPOS cuts the thread of destiny
the THREE HOURS aka HORAE
● EUNOMIA "good order"
● DIKE "justice"
● EIRENE "peace"
the idea with the fates is that there is nothing you can do to
change the way your life goes. this gives the greeks a very
dismal outlook. blame their actions on the fates.
originally three horae, later a fourth was added. originally
they were the law and order entities of society. later they came
to also be associated with the seasons at the same time (thats
why the fourth was slipped in)
*three is an important number in the greek world
fates depicted as older lady.
until the rise of christianity, fate was the world view: your
life was what it was and it was unalterable, no matter what you
did. it was so unchangeable that the gods couldn't change it
either. gods do not control fate, they may know your fate
though. sometimes yoru life may take a detour from your fate but
the gods often put you back on your fate.
advent of christianity brought in new ideas of free will
SEMI DIVINE OFFSPRING OF ZEUS demi-gods - limited power and mortal
ie perseus, heracles (only exception to mortality rule, heracles
splits in two)
more powerful than regular humans but not as powerful as the
gods. for the most part they were human.
son of ZEUS and ALCYMENE
missed ten minutes of class here
has a son: TRITON
*typically in artwork, those depicted nude were gods, heroes, or
HIPPIOS POSEIDON (horsey poseidon)
horses were drown in his honour
theres a version where poseidon impregnates medusa and when her
head is cut off, pegasus emerges, so poseidon has a horsey kid
he also tries to hit up with demeter in ARCADIA. she tries to
flee from him and turns into a horse. poseidon pursues her by
transforming into a stallion, captures her, and mates with her.
they mat as horses.
archaeology has found a statue of demeter with a horse head eventually demeter does give birth to a magical horse: ARION.
he has a couple horse kids.
SEA GODS & MONSTERS
majority of sea monsters are from this union
GAIA + PONTUS:
- countless monsters.
- usually they are a combo of human & animal
NEREUS - sea deity, individual who is THE WISE OLD MAN OF THE
● shapeshifter (hence lower half is often depicted as animal
usually serpant like)
● gift of prophecy
● makes with Oceanid named DORIS. they make the 50 NEREIDS.
They represent certain aspects of water. there are a few
really important nereids.
very similar to Oceanids. tough to tell the two apart.
a Nereid! wife of POSEIDON.
reluctant bride, he pesters her till she marries him.
they have only one son together:
a merman. Depicted with conch shell
*even though there was only one triton, in art, poseidon and
amphitrite would be depicted with a bunch of mermen called
THETIS AND PELEUS
Thetis is another Nereid
thetis is the one zeus shouldn't sleep with from prometheus story
she eventually marries peleus
she didn't want to but peleus chased her down
thetis eventually leaves him after they have a son:
ACHILLES (who would have overthrown zeus if zeus fathered him)
GALATEA, ACIS, POLYPHEMUS
Galitea is another Nereid
Polyphemis is in love with Galitrea. He is son of Poseidon. He
is a big cyclopes. He professes love to Galitrea but she loves
Acis. He usually ends his professions of love with promises to
Polyphemis runs into the lovers and threatens to kill Acis. They
both take off but Polyphemis throws part of a mountain at Acis