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Craig Taylor

CLASSICS Lecture Notes January 30 HERA wife/sister of zeus epithets: white armed hera, ox-eyed hera, doe-eyed hera, queen hera, juno in artwork: wearing diadem, holding sceptre if you wanna sacrifie to her you give her a cow her bird is the peacock (with the eyes of Argus from the Io myth) sanctuaries: SAMOS (island), ARGOS. Hera was Argos' patron deity GODDESS OF WOMEN, MARRIAGE, CHILDBIRTH, FERTILITY. associated with fertility but more specifically FEMALE fertility, not earth or rain etc. not a lot of her own solo myths, but she is in lots of others. esp if zeus sleeps with someone else, she's there punishing the female big stories: HERACLES (punishes him all his life), IO & ARGUS (hates io), JASON & THE ARGONAUTS (likes jason), TROJAN WAR (hates trojans) character: chaste, moral but extremely jealous she also wears a POLOS a lot (pillbox hat) IRIS is her messenger, often seen together in artwork. Iris is often seen pouring drinks for gods. TEMPLE OF HERA AT ARGOS has typical usual shape. CHILDREN OF ZEUS & HERA ARES, HEPHAESTUS, HEBE, EILEITHYIA. the two sons, ares and hephaestus, become key olympians. EILEITHYIA goddess of chilbirth. role shared wtih Hera. sometimes they merge identity of Hera and Eileithyia or straight up swap them out for one another HEBE goddess of youthful bloom. she was the cupbearer / waitress of the gods. nurse of the gods. she does that for some time until heracles dies and goes to the heavens and zeus and hera give him HEBE as his wife. WHEN HERACLES DIES, THE IMMORTAL PART GOES TO OLYMPUS, THE MORTAL PART GOES TO THE UNDERWORLD. the immortal part marries hebe. she is usually seen with a cup and chalice pouring drinks or depicted with heracles. she doesn't have wings, thats how you know she isn't iris. you can tell HERACLES in sculpture by the lion skin and club. and he's also always depicted as super buff cause he's the largest. when hebe retires, teh gods need a new cup bearer. he kidnaps a trojan prince named GANYMEDES he transforms into an eagle, swoops down, captures him, and brings him to olympus and makes him immortal and he's the new waiter of he gods. he may have kidnapped him because zeus fell in love with him. ganymedes father, TROS, goes looking for his son. zeus feels bad that tros is wandering around him so he gives him some magnificent horses of the gods. sends hermes to tell him that his boy is aok, but he's serving drinks to the gods and he is immortal. HEPHAESTUS roman Vulcan the working god's god craft god divine smith associated with FIRE, cause he worked with metal in greek period, more commonly associated with creative fire. in roman period, he was also associated with destructive fire. in many greek myths he created wondrous things: unbreakable chains, divine armour of achilles, shields. associated with athena cause she was about teaching of crafts so you could worship them together (one for building, one for teaching how to build) epithets: master craftsmen, strong armed, bent-legged (cause he was born lame and deformed) in athens, the temple of hephaestus was close to the agora (the marketplace where the crafts would be sold) his genealoy: 2 versions. 1. hera gave birth to him alone (theogony), cause she is ticked off that zeus gave birth to athena unaided. retailiation. "unaided". in this version he is born lame so he is cast out of olympus for his deformity. a little while later, hephaestus makes her a beautiful throne and whne she sits in it, his unbreakable invisible chains grab her. she isn't freed till he is allowed back into olympus 2. son of hera and zeus (iliad). he is cast out for his deformity but theres another version where zeus is arguing with hera and hephaestus sides with hera and zeus boots him out. later he's accepted back and celebrated among the gods. attributes: seen holding hammer or anvil or tongs. in literature he's accompanied by the cyclopes, who help him build stuff. sometimes on winged chariot to get back to olympus. sometimes on donkey. HEPHAESTUS WIFE: APHRODITE - strange union because hephaestus was deformed and aphrodite was the most beautiful. different versions why: hera and zeus felt bad for kicking him out so they gave him aphrodite. another one is zeus tries to sleep with aphrodite who says no so he makes her marry hephaestus. - aphrodite gets around. seen with hephaestus brother, ARES all the time. - helius goes and tells hephaestus aphrodite is sleeping with ares. - hephaestus makes invisible chains again over the bed, fakes a vacation, when aph and ares hit the hay, the net gets em all naked and in the act and splayed for all to see. - hephaestus gets all the gods and goddesses to see them to shame them. hermes says that doesn't look that bad, i wish i was trapped there forever. - he demands the bridal gifts, which signals the divorce. he won't let them out. - poseidon convinces him to and the two separate. - ares flees to thrace (his primary region) and aphrodite goes to cyprus (where she was taken after emerging from the sea foam), which is her spot. - you rarely see aphrodite depicted with hephaestus, you usually see her with ARES. EROS (cupid) is usually flying around his mom, aphrodite. many versions of who cupid's dad is (one version is ares). ARES roman MARS war good. "butcher" "boar" aphrodite is often the cult partner, worshipped together the greek attitudes to ares were not super positive ares was not popular greeks were always at war but they didn't like it. most greeks looked to athena for worship, she was patron deity of most warriors but the romans LOVED MARS. they were also at war but they were expanding their empire. they would often keep the wealth from sacking conquered lands in teh roman temple of mars. in rome, his temple was MARS ULTOR (mars the avenger) and this is where the spoils were placed to thank mars. OTHER DIVINE CHILDREN OF ZEUS zeus had plenty of kids not with hera a lot of semi divine too NINE MUSES mom: MNEMOSYNE "memory" goddesses who inspired those in the arts associated with APOLLO examples: CALLIOPE muse of epic. CLIO muse of history. THE MANY AFFAIRS OF ZEUS THEMIS: fates aka moirai ● CLOTHO the spinner ● LACHESIS the measurer ● ATROPOS cuts the thread of destiny the THREE HOURS aka HORAE ● EUNOMIA "good order" ● DIKE "justice" ● EIRENE "peace" the idea with the fates is that there is nothing you can do to change the way your life goes. this gives the greeks a very dismal outlook. blame their actions on the fates. originally three horae, later a fourth was added. originally they were the law and order entities of society. later they came to also be associated with the seasons at the same time (thats why the fourth was slipped in) *three is an important number in the greek world fates depicted as older lady. until the rise of christianity, fate was the world view: your life was what it was and it was unalterable, no matter what you did. it was so unchangeable that the gods couldn't change it either. gods do not control fate, they may know your fate though. sometimes yoru life may take a detour from your fate but the gods often put you back on your fate. advent of christianity brought in new ideas of free will SEMI DIVINE OFFSPRING OF ZEUS demi-gods - limited power and mortal ie perseus, heracles (only exception to mortality rule, heracles splits in two) more powerful than regular humans but not as powerful as the gods. for the most part they were human. HERACLES son of ZEUS and ALCYMENE missed ten minutes of class here POSEIDON trident horse, bull has a son: TRITON wife: AMPHITRITE *typically in artwork, those depicted nude were gods, heroes, or athletes why horses? epithets: HIPPIOS POSEIDON (horsey poseidon) horses were drown in his honour theres a version where poseidon impregnates medusa and when her head is cut off, pegasus emerges, so poseidon has a horsey kid he also tries to hit up with demeter in ARCADIA. she tries to flee from him and turns into a horse. poseidon pursues her by transforming into a stallion, captures her, and mates with her. they mat as horses. archaeology has found a statue of demeter with a horse head eventually demeter does give birth to a magical horse: ARION. he has a couple horse kids. SEA GODS & MONSTERS majority of sea monsters are from this union GAIA + PONTUS: - countless monsters. - usually they are a combo of human & animal NEREUS - sea deity, individual who is THE WISE OLD MAN OF THE SEA. ● shapeshifter (hence lower half is often depicted as animal usually serpant like) ● gift of prophecy ● makes with Oceanid named DORIS. they make the 50 NEREIDS. They represent certain aspects of water. there are a few really important nereids. NEREIDS very similar to Oceanids. tough to tell the two apart. AMPHITRITE a Nereid! wife of POSEIDON. reluctant bride, he pesters her till she marries him. they have only one son together: TRITON a merman. Depicted with conch shell shapeshifter *even though there was only one triton, in art, poseidon and amphitrite would be depicted with a bunch of mermen called generically tritons. THETIS AND PELEUS Thetis is another Nereid thetis is the one zeus shouldn't sleep with from prometheus story she eventually marries peleus she didn't want to but peleus chased her down thetis eventually leaves him after they have a son: ACHILLES (who would have overthrown zeus if zeus fathered him) GALATEA, ACIS, POLYPHEMUS Galitea is another Nereid Polyphemis is in love with Galitrea. He is son of Poseidon. He is a big cyclopes. He professes love to Galitrea but she loves Acis. He usually ends his professions of love with promises to kill Acis. Polyphemis runs into the lovers and threatens to kill Acis. They both take off but Polyphemis throws part of a mountain at Acis and kil
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