Asia's road to modernization was born out of fear of the western invasion and conquest
that moved them forward.
Baku-Han is a repressive political system. Proʼs: bc its was so structured it was very
peaceful no wars for over 200 yrs. A socially closed society = no chance of improving
social status, merchants crucial in economy but of lowest status. most cultural tradition
of japan emerge from this period. Tokugawa Japan was diplomatically closed since
1640. Only the Dutch, Korea and Chinese traders were allowed interactions. The Dutch
were limited to an artiﬁcial island in Nagasaki.
The Domestic Crisis:
Exploitation of resources = population tripled=> stretched system to limit. Thus small
climate variations could cause major disasters: 1732, 1782-89, 1832-36 = Famine
The Dilemmas of the Samurai
1- Large ruling class 5-10% (Ruling Class of Brit 0.5%)
2- Taxes stipend ﬁxed in rice
-Fluctuations in prices hurt samurai, daimyo & bakufu
-Samurai lived beyond their means and often overspent
-40-80% of daimyo income on residence in and on travel expenses to
3- The failures of the frozen social order.
-Merchants more wealthy than samurai
-Failures to deal with social changes
Growing dissatisfaction with bakufu, by the samurai by the merchants
Problems compounded by challenge from outside.
-Russia lands on Kuril Islands and northern Hokkaido in 1770-90ʼs: local attacks
-Brits turned away 1813-1816
-1824 British whaler stranded in Kanto region
-Sakuma Shozan (1811-1864)
Compare: A - was very centric on Japan. isolationist
S - was a lot more open less isolationist
Kaikoku = Open country
kokutai = National policy
Sonno Joi = Revere the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians.
Shock of Opium War 1839-42
-The shock of the Chinese losing to the Brits.
-Japan still not much interested in Japan
-Only US wanted to use it was coaling and fuelling station
Matthew Perry, Uraga Bay in July of 1853
-very arrogant -frightened the Japanese with their steam ships
-the shogun-ate signs a treaty w the US promising to open up ports > Signed an
unequal treaty in 1858
ISSUE!!!!!! is that the Emperor is supposed to have signed the treaty. This signing is the
fall of the Tokugawa era, caused a political crisis.
-The daimyo questioned Bakufu
-Shishi = men of high purpose
- Terrorism, aggression against foreigners and own govt.
-Shinsengumi = el