EAS100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Ice Dam, Aquifer, Gypsum

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EAS 201: Lecture 14
February 6, 2019
Lecture notes borrowed from Karlis Muehlenbachs’ slides February 6, 2019.
Flood Characteristics:
o Stage the height of the river/body of water (volume).
Flood Stage when stream exceeds bank height.
o Crest the maximum stage that is reached.
o Upstream Flood occurs in smaller, localized upper part of basin.
o Downstream Flood larger, lower part of drainage basin.
o Flash Flood is a type of upstream flood from a rapid rise of stream stage.
o Image taken from Karlis Muehlenbachs’ slides
February 6, 2019
o Canada example Ice Jam (ice creates a sort
of dam, potential for sudden increase in river
levels both above/below ice jam).
Hydrographs measure amount of water/stage of
river as a function of time.
Water Table area at upper level of zone of
o Where pores & fractures of ground are
saturated w/ water.
Springs where water table intersects surface, usually
bounded below by aquicludes/aquitards.
o Aquitard: an impermeable layer under ground that water will accumulate above.
o Aquiclude: solid, impermeable area underlying/overlying an aquifer.
Porosity portion of void space in a given material where fluid(s) can be stored.
Permeability measures how readily a fluid will pass through a material.
o Igneous, metamorphic, and chemical sedimentary rocks have low permeability &
porosity (crystals are tightly interlocked).
o Clastic sediments have higher porosity & permeability.
Sandstones are very porous; clay & mud rich rocks are not porous or
Aquifer Geometry:
Images from
slides February
6, 2019
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