EAS100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Ocean Current, Pelagic Zone, Hydrothermal Vent

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EAS 201: Lecture 22
February 25, 2019
Lecture notes/images borrowed from Karlis Muehlenbachs’ slides February 25, 2019.
Ocean Layering:
o Biotic Zones
Marine
Biology
Plants/animals living in uppermost level occupy the pelagic zone.
Benthonic organisms live on/within bottom sediment.
Floating organisms are planktonic.
Plant life is exclusively within the photic zone.
Free swimmers are restricted by their own locomotion (squid, fish,
reptiles).
Black smoker communities on mid ocean ridges.
o Oceanic sediment is dominated by skeletal remains of single-celled planktonic &
benthonic animals; when > 30% of bottom sediment consists of these remains:
If carbonate-based is called Calcareous Ooze.
If silica-based is called Siliceous Ooze.
o Lithic sediment consists of rock fragments, mantles continental shelves/slopes.
Oceans Basins’ Sediments:
o Note, volcanoes along “Ring of Firewill vary predictable due to differing
sediment types subducted under them.
Ocean Circulation:
o Surface ocean currents are slow drifts of water caused by friction b/w the ocean
& air flowing over it.
50-100m deep.
o Coriolis Effect:
Influences ocean current direction.
The Earth rotates; imagine shooting something at a target, the rotation
moves the target you miss.
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