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Lecture 2

EAS100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Oort Cloud, Ellipse, Kuiper Belt

Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
Course Code
Solweig Balzer

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Foundation of the Earth: Earth in space
Solar system
Planets and other bodies
Solar system
Arrangements of the solar system
Earth orbits the sun at average distance 150 million km
Other planets extend out to ~40 A.U.
The sun as a star
A typical star
~700,000 km radius
Mass ~1030 kg
Poetically known as Sol or Helios
Sun’s energy output
Total energy output
3.8 x 1026 W
1.8 x 1017 W reaches Earth
Energy flux on Earth’s surface
Energy flux at Earth’s surface
Maximum = 1370 W/m2
Reduced elsewhere
Angle of incidence
Variation in sun’s behaviour
Varies over time
Sunspots: dark patches formed by turbulence within the sun
Associated with magnetic storms on Earth
Sunspot cycle: 11 year
Source of solar energy
Nuclear fusion of Hydrogen to make Helium
Solar spectrum
Most solar energy is output as electromagnetic radiation
Electromagnetic radiation includes
Radio waves, infra-red, visible light, ultra-violet
X-rays, gamma rays
Electromagnetic radiation
EMR is represented as waves
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