1- large ruling class 5-10% (ruling class of brit 0. 5%) 3- the failures of the frozen social order. Asia"s road to modernization was born out of fear of the western invasion and conquest that moved them forward. Pro s: bc its was so structured it was very peaceful no wars for over 200 yrs. A socially closed society = no chance of improving social status, merchants crucial in economy but of lowest status. most cultural tradition of japan emerge from this period. Tokugawa japan was diplomatically closed since: only the dutch, korea and chinese traders were allowed interactions. The dutch were limited to an arti cial island in nagasaki. Exploitation of resources = population tripled=> stretched system to limit. Thus small climate variations could cause major disasters: 1732, 1782-89, 1832-36 = famine years. Fluctuations in prices hurt samurai, daimyo & bakufu. Samurai lived beyond their means and often overspent.