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Lecture 11

HE ED110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Menarche, Contraceptive Sponge, Female Genital Mutilation

Health Education
Course Code
HE ED110
Paul Nya

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Chapter 11
Learning Objectives
1. Describe the structure and function of the female and male sex organs
2. Explain the changes in sexual functioning that occur during a person’s life
3. Describe how the sex organs function during sexual activity
4. Identity common causes of sexual problems
Learning Objectives
5. Outline the factors that influence sexual behaviour and the various ways human
sexuality can be expressed
6. Describe guidelines for safe, responsible sexual behaviour
7. Identify the advantages, disadvantages, and level of effectiveness of commonly used
reversible contraceptive methods
8. Understand the different types of abortion procedures
A complex, interacting group of inborn, biological characteristics and acquired
behaviours people learn in the course of growing up in a particular family, community,
and society
Includes biological sex, gender, sexual anatomy and physiology, sexual functioning and
practices, and social and sexual interactions with others
Sexuality is a dimension of personality shaped by biological, psychosocial, and cultural
forces and concerning all aspects of sexual behaviour
Sexual Anatomy
Female sex organs
Fallopian tubes
Male sex organs
vas deferens
Prostate gland
Seminal vesicles
Ejaculatory ducts
Cowper’s glands
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The glans (the rounded head of the penis) is a highly sensitive, important component in
sexual arousal
Circumcision, the surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis, occurs in approximately
9% of newborn males in Canada
Some suggest that the procedure promotes cleanliness and reduces the risk of urinary
tract infections in newborns and the risk of STIs in later life
Opponents of circumcision state that it is an unnecessary surgical procedure that causes
pain and puts the baby at risk for complications
Hormones and the Reproductive Life Cycle
Testes create androgens; testosterone
Ovaries create estrogens and progestins; progesterone
Adrenal glands produce androgens in males and females
Pituitary gland regulates hormones of testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands
Hypothalamus controls hormones of the pituitary gland
Differentiation of the Embryo
Sex chromosomes (X and Y) determine an individuals biological sex at the time of
Genetic sex dictates whether the undifferentiated gonads become ovaries or testes.
Female Sexual Maturation
Puberty is the period of biological maturation during adolescence
Progesterone induces the development of female secondary sex characteristics during
puberty, regulates menstrual cycle, and sustains pregnancy
Female Sexual Maturation
Physical changes include breast development, rounding of the hips & buttocks
The beginning of the menstrual cycle, or menarche, is a major landmark of puberty
Menstrual Problems
Dysmenorrhea is painful or problematic menstruation
Premenstrual tension, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), & premenstrual dysphoric
disorder (PMDD) all vary in severity of symptoms, appear before the onset of menses
and disappear within a few days after the start of menstruation
Menstrual Problems
Strategies to provide relief:
Limit salt intake
Don’t use alcohol or tobacco
Eat a nutritious diet
Male Sexual Maturation
Testicular growth is the first obvious sign
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