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Linda Kerr

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Islam Lecture 1thThe early 7 Century sees the founding of a new religion Islam Although it begins as a religious movement it soon attracts the trappings of Empire It moves with great speed becauseIslam is of its appeal to the common maneasy to understand and you gain the protection of Islamic armies when you convertThe Prophet MuhammadBorn 570 at Mecca He was brought up by his grandfather because his mother died He was sent to live in the desert with the Bedouin by tradition for about 7 yearsThe story goes that Muhammad was visited by 2 angels as a child and they took out his heart and washed it cleansing of original sin and then put it backHis paternal uncle was a merchant Muhammad became a merchant on the caravans on the trade routes His good reputation led to him being called The Trusted OneMarried to a wealthy widowshe was 40 and he was only 25 He had four daughters of which Fatima is most importantMuhammad began to receive revelations at about the age of 40 He was visited by the archangel Gabriel in a cave called Hira in Jabal alNour near Mecca and instructed to recite This is his First RevelationThe QuranRecited entirely by Muhammad and arranged by him he knew the order of the revelations But these recitations were written down by his followersSurah Pieces of the Quran114 Surahs each called Ajza divided into 30 partsone for each day of RamadanHafiz a pious person who memorizes it all He protects the Quran in his heartrdThe 3 Caliph established a committee to produce an authorized versionthe Uthmanic QuranWith some encouragement from his wife Muhammad began to preach in the streets the message he had been given He warned his fellow Arabs about their corrupt ways He warned that there was only one God and that the people must give up their idolatrous worship of false Gods and devote their focus and worship to the One God He also warned against immorality and spoke of the need to help the poor weak and less fortunate and to not hurt others He said that all would stand alone on Judgement Day but that an Angel would speak for or against you when you had to face God This would decide if you went to Paradise or Hell To get to Paradise you had to show gratitude to God in life You had to support social justice and submit to God Muslim actually means submission to GodMecca Trading crossroads People lay down their arms before entering People worshipping more than one God brought great tourism to Mecca as they flocked to the Kaaba a massive black stone building that was at the time a shrine containing idols of hundreds of tribal gods and other religious figures One story says that the Kaaba was built by AbrahamYear of Sorrow Muhammads wife and uncle died suddenly in the same year costing Muhammad any protection he had at the time His family was asked to denounce their support of him to avoid revengetaking if Mecca should take action against the Prophet Muhammad is said to have temporarily visited Heaven in this timeMuhammads message is not appreciated by many outside the poor maligned and outcast of society He is mocked and condemned by many people in Mecca and his followers are persecuted Meccan officials didnt like his campaign against the Kaaba because it was a major source of tourism He decides its time for him to find a safe havenThe Fight of the ProphetHijrais when he moved for safetys sake to Yathrib which would later be renamed al Medina City of the Prophet He was originally asked to go there to act as a judge to mediate between two groups His followers follow him there from Mecca They are called the Umma people bound to the Prophet Muhammad by faith not bloodThere are major battles in this time and a bounty of 100 camels is put on Muhammads head Originally a lot of the men following him die but against all odds they manage to hold onIn 628 Muhammad manages to talk to the leaders at Mecca to arrange an annual pilgrimage to Mecca without issueIn 630 they overcome the Meccans after a one month siege Muhammad declares that there is to be no mistreatment of Meccans no vendettas The Meccans just have to accept that he is in charge
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