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University of Alberta
David Marples

September 9th, 2013 The Ages of Revolution: 1775 - 1814 Background: - Intellectual challenges combine with population expansion. Ex: Prussia had a 100% rise in population and France had a 50% rise in population. - Commerce also had experienced rapid amounts of expansionism. - Both expansions led to revolutions during the 1770's and the 1790's. - The Enlightenment thinkers also encouraged the civil population to experience different thoughts, such as, more popular roles in government. American Revolution: - Rebellion of Britain's Atlantic colonies in 1775 gets into an war with Britain and fights for their independence. - The American's were opposed to new taxes and trade controls. Especially resented was the tea tax. - 1765 - Stamp Act - taxes on pamphlets and documents were extremely unpopular. - Overcrowding on the east coast leads to younger men to seek new jobs - including in politics. - The French, bitter over the loss of its Canadian colonies, joined in with the Americans to fight against the British and Spain helped as well. - This leads to the defeat of the British in the US, and USA declared independence in 1776. - The US implemented the ideas of the Enlightenment thinkers into their own constitution and allowed their population to decide things for themselves. (DEMOCRACY) Europe in the late 18th Century: - Often seen as Imperialist period. - Industrial development and new ideologies. - The French Revolution was the critical event. - The social structure was the key problem. French Revolution: Three Stages: 1. Constitutional Monarchy 1789-1792 2. Radical Stage of an Republic 1792-1795 3. Reaction and Military Leadership 1795-1800 Crisis in France: - Louis XVI - limited ability and extremely influenced by his wife, Marie Antoinette - Economic and political crisis in the late 1780's because of the crop issues and led to peasants dying. - Louis calls for the French parliament (Estate General) to deal with the economic crisis. However, the third estate's reprenstatives were not listened and ignored. - Each estate's representatives brought grievances for the King. However, the third estate was ignored because each estate counts only as one vote even though the third estate makes up of 98% of France's population. Therefore, the third estate led by Robespierre requested the voting by numbers. - Tennis Court Oath: historic oath that was orchestrated by Robespierre's third estate to disband from the estate general until a Constitution has been formed. The third estate went into an tennis court and took an oath saying they won't disband until a constitution in France was formed. King Louis XVI loses Control: - 3rd Estate declares the National Constitutional Assembly and issues the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen, authored by one of the 3rd Estate's deputy(representative) Lafayette. - King Louis XVI accepts the declaration, but moved his troops to Versailles. This led to mass popular discontent and led to more protests amongst peasants. - July 14, 1789- a crowd of 100,000 attacks the Bastille Prison and frees all its prisoners and kills the prison guards. - Fall of Bastille weakens the King and leads to power for the peasants. Declaration of Rights: - Collapse of the King;s authority by August 1789 - October 5th, 1789 - Second march with the women marching to Versailles. - Results the King and Queen to be taken under literally house arrest in the Twellery Palace in Paris. Revolution Phase 2: - 1790 - Church property becomes nationalized and clergy was elected. - June 1791 - King makes failed attempt to flee country - Opposition to the reforms starts up in France and developed into radical ideas of change in France led by Robespierre. Robespierre and Marat: - By this time, two groups emerges as the Girondins and jacobins fights for control. - Robespierre leader of the Jacobins and takes the charge of the radical group the Jacobins. - Robespierre led the prosecution of King Louis XVI and condemned him to death and Louis XVI was executed on Jan 1793. - Robespierre also led the Commitee of Public Safety, which was used as a terror machine to execute people who are deemed to be disruptive for the French Revolution. Terror and Reforms: - Robespierre's reforms include metric system, abolition of slavery, and conscription. - 1794 - Robespierre introduces Cult of Supreme Being as replacement of Catholicism, which results in a new calender. - July 1794 - Robespierre executed because people thought he went overboard. - Army of 800,000 formed and industries was put on a war footing and by 1794 France was able to fend off mostly every European country except for Austria and GB. Results of Revolution: - 2 chamber parliament selected by assemblies of electors in each department - French economy suffers - Old feudal system eliminated - Legal reforms begin - Old order shaken everywhere - Infectious patriotism in France Directory: - Formed in 1795, but dependant on support of the army - made up of five members. - 1796 - 1898 Rise of Napolean, a brigadier general that defeats Austrian armies. - Fails to defeat Britain in Egypt but returns to France and abolished the Directory Nov, 1799. - Formation of CONSULATE, that introduced mass education and free educaiton for all and brought rule of law into France. - Revolution ends in 1804 as Napolean appoints himself as the emperor of France. Civil Code 1804: - Needed to codify the laws that were estabilished during the French Revolution. - Centrailize the Education system. - Results in the Napolean Code, which gurantees civil rights and equal oppurtunities for all. Rise and Fall of Napolean: - Napolean had a series of victories during 1805 - 1810 leads to napolean dominating the world. - Napolean's big rival was British's Naval Power and Britain itself. - Following the defeat of Napolean's Grande Army of 600000, alliances of Britain, Prussia, and Russia forced Napolean to abdicate and defeats him in 1814 - 1815. Conclusion: - Napolean defeated, but spread message of revolution - Attacks on privilege continues - Popular nationalism developes outside of France The Enlightenment: The Prequel: Hobbes and Locke: Thomas Hobbes ( 1588 - 1679) -- man is a machine, man should not be making decisons for themselves as they are corrupted. Decision makers should be one individual who can make decisions for all. Montesqieu: Checks and Balance and Separation of Powers. Poers hsouls be taken away from the King and divided into Judicial, Legislative, and Esecutive Voltaire: Critic, poet, scholar, and historian - but also used lampoons to reveal injustices of society. - labelled churches as corrupt - maintained a faith in monarchy as long it was "enlightened" - returns to France to form a association with Marquise Emilie du Chattel - Voltaire's most popular work; Candide; attacks governments and churches Dideroit: (1713 - 1784) - Dideroit together with Alembert (1717 - 1783) COLLABORATED to author an encylopedia. - Goal was to produce a book of scientific and social knowledge to change the way people thought Kant: (1724 - 1804) - German representative of Enlightenment - motto "Dare to know" - How can individuals gain knowledge? - Critique of pure reason (1791), CRITIQUE OF PRACTICAL REASON (1787) Economics: Mercantilism: wealth measured by possession of gold and other precious metals. Francois Quesnay (1694 - 1774): Land not gold was the basis of wealth. Reuslts in Laissez-Faire Turgot and Smith: Robert-Jacque Turgot (1727 - 1781); Finance Minister under King Louis XVI - Introduced freer grain trade, bu his plans for taxation made him very unpopular Adam Smith: Scottish economist - THE ECONOMY WILL WORK ON ITS OWN Nationalism: - Belief that each nation should govern itself and be self-determined - Arose from inquiries into language, history, art, folklore during the 18th century. Give political awreness to citizens. Herder: National culture based on shared language Fichte: philosopher of Kant who changed from liberilism into REALPOLITIK. Europe 1815 - 1848: Congress of Vienna: - piece settlement after years of turmoil due to the wars started by Napolean - decided on the new borders of Europe - 271 states sent representatives to attend the conference - main leaders were: Castlereagh (PM of Britain), Hardenberg (Prussia), Metternich (Austria), Aleksandr (Russia) - Germany was divided into 39 nation states which was called the Germany Republic (Austria and Prussia was included as part of the Republic) - THe Brief return of Napolean halts the Congress, Napolean was later defeated and exiled into the island of St. Helens, where he later died. - The main figure of this Congress was Karl Metternich, the foreign minister of Austria. - Metternich introduces the idea of balance of power in order to maintain peace and order in Europe, which was achieved for approximately 30 years. - Tsar propses the Holy Alliance in the Fall of 1815, which was signed by Prussia, Russia, Austria, and later France. The alliance was introduced to maintain peace in Europe for 20 years, stop the ideas of the French Revolution. Challenges to the Congress of Vienna: - 1820 - 1821 - Revolts in German states, Spain, Italy, and Latin America - Uprisings all quashed by Congress states - Britain, however, backs the Greek Revolt against Turks, which led to Greece's independence. The newly independent country of Greece then was forced to install a King that acted as a puppet to the Knig of Bavaria. - 1823- US President Monroe warns all European countries to keep out of Western-Hemisphere The Restoration of the Monarchy in France - Bourbons (supporters of the monarchy) restores King Louis XVIII to power - He agreed to keep all of the liberal changes Napolean had made during his reign, such as the civil code - Louis XVIII was succeeded by his brother Charles X (1824-1830), who wanted to act like a real king, by restricting press, enabling death sentences for mild transgression against church - This led to unrest in Paris, where Charles X was deposed and went into exile - New King Louis Phillippe, promised to be a constitutional monarchy and a citizen King, however he failed. - Imacts of event leading to the declaration of independence by Belgium from the Netherlands - Poland also had revolt to try to establish independence from Russia, Russia under Nicholas Tsar quickly suppressed the revolt. Italy Under Mazzily - Italy was separated into different countries and areas occupied by Austria and France. - 1820 an uprising started in the Kingdom of Two Scicilies that was quickly suppressed by the Austrian Empire - However under Mazzini, an young Nationalistic leader creates the Young Italy Movement, who kicks out the Austrians from the territory and makes it join the kingdom of the Two Scilies - Metternich was very afraid and he was right September 16th, 2013 Revolution in 1848 1848: A Momentous Year - Revolution of France against King Louis Phillippe, who censored the press and only allowed the rich to have a say with the government, starts the momentum of revolutions around Europe - King Louis Phillippe fled to England, where a previsionary government declared named the Second French Republic - The Second Republic split between moderates and radicals - June 1848 unrest in Paris, where thousands were killed, executed, or departed to Algeria, this leads to the election of Napolean Louis Bonaparte, who later declared himself as a dictator and made himself Emperor Napolean III Frankfurt Unification: - Liberals demand German unification, such as in the Kingdom of Bavaria, whose King Leopald abdicates. - Prussia's King Frederick William IV promises a constitution and parliament, after Prussia's example, other nations that make up the later Germany did the same. - 18 May - Frankfurt Assembly, where doctors, lawyers, judges, and professors from all parts of Germany to discuss German unification - The members of the Frankfurt Assembly declares rights of people in Prussia, and in 1849 approves a united Germany without Austria - The Emperor was offered to King William from Prussia, however he turned it down and later led his Prussian army to depose the Frankfurt Assembly, where most of its members fled to USA. Hungary - Kossuth demands empire parliament and Hungarian independence - This leads to the resignation of Metternich - Austrian abolishes serfdom - The greedy Hungarians wanted to expand its empire and eyes the lands of Serbia, Croatia, however the Serbs wanted to join Austria because the Austrians are more tolerant - The new emperor Franz Josen of Austria calls in his Russia ally and together they overthrew Kossum and his parliament and occupies Hungary again Why did all These Revolutions Fail? - Conservatives forces remain strong within the nations - Liberals take over then becomes radical - Russia helps Austria because the Tsar Nicholas II is afraid the revolutions can lead to revolt in Poland Unification of Italy and Germany Piedmont Leads the Way - Piedmont ruled by Italians under King Victor Emmanuel II - PM Camour was chosen by Emmanuel II to lead the government seeks aid from France in order to be financially sound for unification - The French Emperor Napolean III was very sympathetic on Piedmont, and decides to help Piedmont battle the Austrians - Austria invades Piedmont, but with the help from France easily defeats the Austrians - Howeever, Napolean III was afraid of a strong Italy so he makes Camour sign an peace agreement with Austria that allows certain territories to join Piedmont, but other territories to remain in with the Austria Prussia and Bismarck Leads the Way - Otto von Bismarck was a great strategist and was especially of loyal to Prussia - His policy was termed Realpolitiks which is defined as no morality in politics, problems must be solved by blood - In 1862, he was appointed as Minister President of Prussia for King William I, thereby becoming the foreign minister and prime minister of Prussia - Hated democracy and wanted to rule Prussia as a dictator without parliament - Prussia is the strongest amongst the states of the German confederation and under the leadership of William I and Bismarck wanted to unify Germany and rule as a conservative government - Bismarck's ways to achieve unification of Germany was to isolate Austria by fighting wars around Austria War against Denmark and Start of Unification - The Kingdom of Denmark annexes the territory Schleweig and Holstein, which causes Prussia to declare war on Denamrk - Prussia makes Austria join them and together they defeat Denamrk easily and Schleweig was given to Prussia and Holstein was given to Austria - This puts the relationship between Austria and Prussia into a more strained role - Bismarck isolates Austria by forming allies with Italy and Russia, the kingdoms that surround Austria - 1866 Prussia invades Holstein and easily defeats Austria - Austria was fighting the war on two fronts and was forced to sign an peace treaty 1866 Treaty of Prague - The North German Confederation forms in 1867 which allows the independent German states to remain independent with Prussia the leading state. However, the states who had supported Austria was ceded to Prussia War against France and Unification - Bismarck forces the war against France by personally editing a piece of newspaper article that showed King William of Prussia was insulting France - France declares war on Prussia as a result of the insult - All the Southern States side with Prussia and supports Prussia - September 1 - Prussia defeats France and captures and exiles Napolean III and conquers Paris - Prussia agrees to combine all the souther states together and forms the German empire with Kaiser William as its emperor - FRANCE HAD to cease Alsace-Lorraine to Germany and had to pay for severe reparations Things to Note - Bismarck unified Germany through warfare and was based as a dictator - Germany becomes a country with the Kaiser and Chancellor having the executive power The United States: Slavery and Civil War Expansion of US Territory - 1803 - President Thomas Jefferson purchase Louisiana and several other states in the Louisiana Purchse from France for a measly sum - 1848 - President James Polk invades Mexico and captures California and Texas Southern Economy - Rural South depends on cotton and slavery who picks them - The south exports the Cotton into Canada and Britain to make profit - Prices high and demand for Cotton grows every year Northern Economy - Slavery abolished in the late 19th century due to the American Revolution - Slaves were not needed as part of the economy in the North because the North was an industry region ULTIMATELY: SLAVES SURVIVED IN THE SOUTH BECAUSE OF THEIR ECONOMY AND RACISM Abolitionist Movement - 1830's militants and anti-slavery movements starts in the North and was led by white lawyers and former slaves - 1854 President Franklin Pierce signs the Kansas Nebraska BIll where the people of each state vote to accept slavery or not - This leads to violence as people who were abolitionists or pro-slaverists rushed to other states to vote for their cause - tensions rose with the antislavery President Abraham Lincoln voted into power - December- Southern states secedes from the US and starts Civil War Civil War - 1861-1865 over 500,000 killed - 1865 Southern General Lee surrenders to the North, the war ends with the South being defeated - April 14th, 1865 Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth who was pro-slavery - 13th Amendmant of the US Constitution abolished slavery - 14th Amendmant of the US constitution granted citizenship to former slaves - 15th Amendmant of the US constitution granted the right to vote for former slaves Results of the Civil War - unity of America achieved with a new national anthem Star-Spangled Banner - The policies of the north and south are combined into national policy - Created a continent-wide free labor market allowing the US economy to prosper - US Industrialization followed, led by iron and steel - Wealthy businessmen had powerful influence on politics - Shortage of labours therefore increase of wages - Expansion of railway Britain and Canada Whig Ministry - 1830 supporters of the parliamentary reform gain seats in Parliament - King William IV appoints Lord Grey as Prime Minister - Kord Grey issues the Great Reform Act in 1832 Great Reform Act of 1832 - Expands size of electorate - New urban boroughs give cities a bigger voice in the House of Commons - Establishes stability in Great Britain Second Reform Act of 1867 - Passed by the Conservative government - Increased voters from 1.4 million to 2.4 million - Disraeli the leader of the Conservative government hence the Prime Minister responsive to social issues - However, Disraeli was defeated by Gladstone of the Liberal Party and a slew of changes ensued - Changes such as competitive entrance exams for governmental servants - 1874, Disraeli defeats Gladstone - Disraeli sees a strong Britain in order for British to excel - Therefore he establishes several social programs such as Artisdane Housing Act which gave housing for working class September 30th, 2013 China 1800-1913 Qing Dynasty: - Came to power in 1644 and was the last imperial dynasty in China. - Defeated the Ming Dynasty - Main enemies are the Russians in the Northwest and Mongols in the east - Emperor Kangxi creates a strong military that defeats the Mongols and signs several treaties with the Russians that ended their bitter difference - Arrival of Europeans in the middle of the 16th centuries, mostly the Europeans are Christian Jesuits, who are mostly missionaries. - The Jesuits didn't believe that Taoism and Buddaism are illegal religions - Later on the Pope banned Chinese Christians to believe in the dead (Taoism), in return the Emperor banned Christianity in China and expelled all the Jesuit missionaries. - Portuguese settled in the city of Macau - Other Europeans arrived in China and they were told to stay in Guangzhou, and trade there. Lord McCartney: - British East India Company trades between China and Britain was very active in the middle of the 18th century - 1793-British sends lord mcCartney to negotiate with Emperor Qianlong for a better tariff and was turned down - Trade with Britain and China, benefits China at first as Britian pays China with silver, however later on Britain changes silver to opium and gets China addicted on a illegal drug - China bans Opium in China and executes several drug dealers, with Lin Zexu acting as the main enforcer - Nov. 1839, War breaks out after several British trade ships were attacked by Chinese warships - 1840, Britain dents out 12 warships and takes over several cities in the province of Guangdong, and begins to negotiate treaties with the Chinese Imperial Government Treaty of Nanking: - Aug. 1842 - Treaty of Nanking - The treaty ends the Guangzhou system, provides British with a port in Hong Kong - Five ports opened in Guangzhou, Ningbo, Fuzhou, Nanjing, and Shanghai - Treaties with other western superpowers such as USA, France, and Germany, established ports in other cities as well - After the Nanjing Treaty, opium triples in China and eventually leads to another war The Second Opium War. Second Opium War: - The troops of France and Britain took over Beijing and forced the emperor to flee - The second treaty between Britain and China give Vietnam and Burma to France and Britain Taiping Rebellion: - The rebellions put the country of China put the country of China in turmoil - The rebellions was started by schoolteacher Hong Xinqian, who failed the civil service exam four times - Hong was so stressed by his failures that he had special dreams in his sleeps - His dreams included Christian God telling him that he is the younger brother of Jesus Christ and he attacked Confucious and Taoists and Buddhist believes - Peasants and middles class workers join him and soon the Taiping take over Nanjing and proclaim the Kingdom of Peace, China was now split into 2 countries - Soon Taiping ends taking over 16 provinces Taiping Ideology: - Puritanical ethics from Old Testament - Banned opium, alcohol, tobacco, and gambling - However, leaders of the Taiping government was too poorly educated to govern the land, and educated leaders didn't want to govern as the are still Confucians - Westerners are mostly supportive of the Manchu Qing dynasty, as they want to continue the trade - Taiping rebellion failed because they failed to deliver their promises, as they failed to redistribute land and Hong had almost 22 concubines, even though he banned double marriage Rebellion Defeated in 1860 Post Rebellion/Self-Strengthening - Reform period, however China weakens - Empress Cixi comes to power and installs several puppet Emperors Empress Cixi - Well educated and strong willed, however very narrow minded and had no real ideas in how to govern CHina as a whole, but only to increase her power - Started out as an Concubine to Emperor Xianfeng, and bore his only male heir and was made empress instead - She basically ruled for her son during his reign Treaty Ports - 1860-1914 Western foreigners stationed in Shanghai lived in mansions and had several servants - Their land was under British control - This ended up badly for China, as local business had no protection, cotton spinning was replaced by yarn from Britain, tea was replaced by Red Tea in Indian - The foreigners took advantage of the weak Qing Dynasty and monopolized trade in China Boxer Rebellion - A rebellion that was supported by the Court of Qing, Empress Cixi - The rebellion's goal was to get rid of the foreigners that was monopolizing the trades - Their main focus however, was on Christian Missionaries and Chinese Christians - They were defeated with the Chinese military by an 8 country alliance of Italy, Germany, Britain, France, Japan, Russia, Belgium, and Austria - A treaty was signed that give Hong Kong to Britain, and Empress Cixi was forced to sign another treaty that provoked reforms, such as dictional reforms - Western doctrines were translated into Chinese by Japanese - Yuan Shikai starts an New Army and begins to recruit loyalties, this leads to reforms and leads to the 1911 Revolutions 1911 Revolutions - Emperor Puyi ruled for 3 years as an child, and was forced to abdicate by Yuan Shikai - Four factions formed within China: Gentries, Qing military leaders, Sun Yat-sen (revolutionary), and Yuan Shikai - The Qing military leaders was defeated and the Yuan Shikai declares him President of the New Republic of China Conclusions - By 1913, Yuan fails to declare himself Emperor and start a new dynasty and was overthrown, China was dominated by several war lords until Chiang Kai- Shek takes power - Reform- Chinese will remain Chinese and only borrows ideas from the Western World Japan 1800-1914 Tokugawa Japan 1603 to 1856 -Tokugawa Shogunate(head of the military) in 1603 to 1856 - Samurai society based on feudalism - A very economically stable period as Japan's population grew Decline of Shogun - Consumption culture in metropolis - Decline of silver and gold - Constructions of temples and shrines, which were very expensive, coupled with a natural drought leads to significant economical problems in Japan 11th Shogun Iyenari (1787 - 1837) - Relaxed some policies and allowed bribes - Lived a very luxurious lifestyle (40 wives and 55 children) - Tenpo Famine (1833- 1839) - Governemtn and merchants monopolize rice - Coupled with the rice famine, many people die of starvation because they can't afford food - A governmental official tries to rebel, but was killed Decline of Shogun (External Causes) - Growing interest of foreign powers - A policy of seclusion over 200 years - Russians came to Hokkaido and Nagasaki between 1792 to 1804 - British wants to settle in Nagasaki, but Shogun Iyenari declares no, and to fire at all ships that was foreigner, however, Americans arrive American Ultimatum - 1853- Commodore Matthew Perry arrives in Japan and issues an ultimatum, trade with US or face an invasion - Japanese forced to sign a treaty with the Us that opens up trade between US and Japan - The treaty was unequal benefiting the US and gives US monopolization of trade Japanese Civil War - The aristocratic Samurais starts an revolution - The 13th Shogun was sick and was later overthrown - After the overthrow of the Shogun, Loyalists take over - Loyalists: - Restores power to an emperor - Wanted to protect Japan from foreign powers - Takes place mostly in Satsuma - Meiji Emperor takes over from the Shogun in1867 and becomes the head of Japan Why did Loyalists Start in the South? - Katsu Katshu, "man of peace" turns over Edo to the Emperor - ends Tokugawa Shogunate - Satsuma profits from the promotion of trade, production of crops, and had western-style military - Satsuma was far away from Edo, therefore the Shogun had little power Meiji Era: - New Leaders- Saigo Takamori of Satsuma and Kido Koin of Choishu - Abolition of fragmented systems of domains - Caste system was abolished and introduction of heimin (commoners) - Conscription was introduced in 1873 - Compulsory education takes place in 1872 - Movements for freedom and people's rights leads to an constitution in1889 Invention of Traditional Emperor - In 1889, the Meiji Emperor moved from Kyoto to Tokyo (Edo) and established an Imperial Palace in 1889 - 1) The Emperor Continuous family of ancient Japan and rules with limited powers - 2) A symbol of Shinto-Buddhist traditions and politics - 3) A leader of expansive Japanese race - 4) Leader of Enlightenment and Westernization Economy - The Meiji leaders believed in a strong economy, as they believed that they needed to catch up with the rest of the world - Their slogan was "Rich Country, Strong Army" - Telegraph in 1869 - Uniform currency by mid-1880 - Railroad in 1872 - Government sponsors local industries and businesses - The Industrial Revolutions moves to Japan in the 1890's - Zabatsu (financial districts)- led to financial booms, but harsh conditions for factory workers Culture - Iwakura Mission of 1872-2873, the primary mission of this mission was to learn western ways of governing, so they can defeat the Westerns at that time who were monopolizing trade - Culture during the Meiji Era was full of adopting Western Ideas - However, Ernest Fenellosa, who graduated from Harvard, believes in going back to the old Japanese traditions, and developes a redefinition of Japanese, that results in a strong sense of nationalism The Rise of Imperial Japan War with China - Oligarchs fin ace railroads and shipyards - Japanese Navy uses aggressive tactics to attack others - Minerals in Korea, leads to war with China, who was also trying to use Korea - Japan badly defeats China, and demands Qing China to sign an treaty that give Japan exclusive access to China, just like the other Western Powers - Other Western Powers were alarmed as they were afraid of losing China to Japan as an colony - Japanese later joins with the 8 country alliance that defeated the Boxer Rebellion Rivalry with Russia - Russia refuses to give up parts of Manchuria, they had conquered - 1904- Japan attacks Port Arthur that belonged to Russia, where the Russians was badly defeated by the Japanese in land and sea battles - USA acts as a peacemaker and makes both Japan and Russia to sign the Treaty of Portsmouth - The Russians limits the damage, but Japanese takes over Korea - Idea of Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Empire, earlier had targets on Hawaii and Philippines Japan and China - Japanese imposes brutal rule of Korea - South Koreans was used as slave labourers - North Korea was seen as an launching point for an invasion of China (Manchulia) - 1910 Qing Empire collapses, where Japan sees a opportunity to invade - Nationalists led by Sun Yat-Sen uses Japan as an inspiration to overthrow the Qing empire and China becomes stronger Conclusions on China and Japan - China adheres to traditions, but weaknesses exploitated by Western Powers - Japan by contrast, adopts many Western practices and grew to be a very strong power due to industrialization and strong navy October 7th, 2013 Ottoman Empire Introduction: - Oldest land based empire, ruled by Muslims of Turkic descent since 1300's - Ruled by Sultans, the first Sultan established the Generis, which conquered Egypt, Greece, Serbia, Syria, and became the most stable and strongest nations in the Middle East. - CHALLENGED RUSSIAN and Hungary for control of Eastern Europe. - BY THE 19TH CENTURY: The Ottoman Empire declined significantly, and Russia became the power of the East of Europe Decline: - After Napolean attacks and defeats the British in Egypt, Napolean was later forced out by the Brits and Muhammed Ali takes over as the independent ruler of Egypt. Therefore the Ottoman Empire lost control of Egypt - Sultan Mahmoud I dismantles corrupt janissary and forms a new army - However, the reforms were proved to be unsuccessful, and Libya, Algeria, and Tunisia became independent states. Algeria later was taken over by France - European provinces of the Ottoman Empire began to rebel for independence, such as Greece in 1820. Romania and Serbia also begins to revolt after their people expressed nationalistic feelings. - The Greeks were destined to fail, when Mahmoud I invited Muhammed Ali to intervene and defeat Greece. Then, France and Britian intervened and defeated the Ottoman Empires Empire and Egypt. - Treaty if Anatolia gives power to Britain, France and Russia to determine the fate of Greece. - Treaty of London- Greece becomes independent West Stops Muhammed Ali - 1830's Ali decides to attack the Ottoman Empire - 1833- Muhammed Ali captures Syria - Mahmoud I calls for Europe for support and only Russia declared their support for the Ottoman Empire - Russian signed an special treaty with Ottoman Turks, so they could access special waters (Dardnaille) around Turkey - The rest of Europe then joins in and defeats Muhammed Ali and gives Syria back to the Ottomans Reforms (Tanzimat) - 1838- Rose Garden Edict and others known as Tanzimat - A more favourable taxation system - military conscription based on Islamic Law - Gurantees life, honours, society Ottomans and Russia - The Tsar Nicholas I calls Ottoman Empire the "Sick man of Europe", but Ottommans refused to die - Britain and France seek to limit Russian control and leads to Crimeon War - 1875-Slavs in Herzegovina wanted to become independent and was brutally suppressed by the Ottomans Congress - Russia intervenes on the behalf of the Slavs and defeats the Ottoman Empire - Treaty of San Stefano-1878-Russia and Turks agree on the Serbia, Montenegro, and Romania independence and Bulgaria was given to Russia. - Britain was outraged because they believe that the treaties was too one-sided, therefore Otto Van Bismarck intervened in the Congress of Berlin - Bulgaria was divided into three parts where all was given back to the Ottomans and Britain was given Cyprus as gratification for its help to the Ottomans Turkish Revolution of 1908 - Young Turks forces restores constitution and parliament and removes the Sultan - October-Bulgaria declares full independence, and Austria grabs Bosnia and Herzegovina - By 1914, the Ottoman Empire lost almost all of European territory, and was left only to Turkey Balkan Wars - 1912-Serbia and other Balkan states try to grab the remaining Ottoman territories in Europe - Leads to the Balkan Wars Russian Empire: The Decembrist Revolt: - Russia became very powerful after defeating the France and Napolean - Dec. 1825, after the deaths of Tsar Aleksandr I led to a small army revolt, his successor Tsar Nicholas I ruled Russia very conservatively - Russia during the 19th century was seen as an agriculture society that was lacking industrialization Crimean Catastrophe: -1850's - Pressure on Ottomans leads to British and French intervention Industrial Developement in Russia - Russian leaders concerned by revolutionary ideas - Russia expands further into Central Asia - State sponsors industry - Count Witte - Ministry of Finance starts high tariffs, that allows for Russia own industries to survive Limitations: - 1900- Russia ranks 4th in world in steel output and 2nd in petroleum output and refining - Agriculture still backward-slows down growth of cities - Factories are huge, but working force small - Russia never had a real middle class because of government's financial regime that allows foreign investments only to invest - Because of the lack of the middle class: peasants had always rebelled against the Tsar Revolution in the Air - Lack of land, forces peasants to revolt - Factory working conditions are unpleasant - Anarchism: advocacy of terrorism to achieve goals(unsurplus the Tsar) - Assasinators: a group that was designed to kill the Tsar. They succeeded and Tsar Aleksandr II was assassinated on March of 1881 - However: Repressions followed. Rise of Marxism: - A small movement but then gradually attract peasants, which makes the movement huge - Strikes and peasants insurrections: Tsar Nicholas II agrees on Duma (Parliament) in 1906 Lenin: - Becomes key figure in the Socialist movement in RUssia - Born to a noble family - 1902- Writes "What is TO BE DONE"-platform for small revolutionary party - Spent many years in exile - In 1916, Lenin criticizes Russia's involvement in the WWI Imperialism Colonial Rule in India - India was called the Jewel in the crown - Early 19th century: Britain had largest empire in the world - 1800- Wast Indian Company split India into several large and small tributary states to India, as well as Provinces belonging directly to Britain East India Direct British Rule Over India - The British forces were backed by the Sikhs and Gurkhas - The Indian opposition was internally divided, which leads to the end of the revolt, with some conecssions given up for the Indians by the British Crown - The concessions include the extinguishing of the East Indian Company, which allowed the British Crown to rule directly over India. It also set up an legislative advisory council made up of Indians to establish a voice of the Native Indians - The British government was the opposite to the East Indian Company, and opposes Indians to freely practice their culture and religion. Unequal but Some Oppurtnities - The British built large telegraph systems and large railroads for India - Indians get access to British education, and civil service posts - but still Indians were treated unequally in India - Ideas of the British Imperialist tried to change the caste system in India by mixing the lower and higher castes together in prison and on trains and buses. Even lower castes people can sue the higher caste people - The British were also opposed to the traditional role of Indian Women Economic Policy in British India - due to the civil war in the US, leads to the shortage of cotton, which causes the Indians to grow cotton for Britain. This causes severe droughts in India and leads to several Indians to leave Indian and move into Africa - Mercantilism was strong India Resistance - In 1885- an Hindu dominated Indian National Congress made up of largely British educated scholars, who wanted to make India independent - Also in 1885- The Muslim League was created as a response to the Indian National Congress, which wanted to make up an separate states for the Muslims in indai, which later became Pakistan - This causes internal conflict within India, which causes Imperial rule over India for a very long time - However, revolt occurs under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi who advocated peaceful negotiations with the British Crown, an proponent for gradual change and non-violent and peaceful protests GANDHI AND NEHRU - Gandhi - educated in Britain and trained as an lawyer - led the Indian revolt for independence - advocated for peace and non-violence - Nehru - Gandhi's right hand man - educated in Britain and trained as an lawyer Radical Group - led by BG Tilak, who argues for radical resistance towards British rule and also advocated for no muslims in India Muslim Groups - This group realized that if India was to become an independent country, Muslims would not be a voice in India because of the large majority of hindus in India - They believed the Brotish treated them poorly during their rule of India because of Muslims' radical stance in the 1857 Revolt - This group was led by Muhammed Ali Jinnah, another British educated muslim and known as the founder of Pakistan. Who like Gandhi advocated for peaceful protests against British rule, but unlike Gandhi, he believed that a separate Muslim state is better served for all. Australia - 1770 James Cook settles in Austr
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