HIST 261: Cold War 1
March 24th 2014.
Paudash was discover in SK, began mining in 1950’s, rivaled UR as an important resource, Canada
had a lot of Uranium.
● Canada’s Uranium = important in development of the atomic bomb
During WWII America experimented in the New Mexico desert (Los Alamos) to try to build an atomic
bomb (Manhattan project). There was one Canadian scientist on this team. Canada built a heavy water
● Uranium used in the Manhattan project was from the Northwest Territories, it was mined by the
Dene people who were paid $3 a day. It was only in the 1990’s that the Dene discovered what
they were mining which explained many of their health problems. The Canadian government
agreed to clean up the area.
August 6th 1945: The Atomic Bomb (little boy) was dropped on Hiroshima. The resulting fire engulf 4.4
square miles of hiroshima. Over 78,000 people died, and another 70,000 over the next 5 years due to
August 9th: The Atomic Bomb (Fat Man) was dropped. This would result in a surrender from Japan’s
Emperor, ending the war in Japan.
This changed how the world looked at war. Fear of atomic war was widespread. Shelters were built
underground in case of nuclear war, children would practise “duck and cover.”
1945: Igor Gouzenko clerk to Russian military in ottawa, transmitted messages in code for the head of
soviet military in Canada.
● In Sept. 1945 he was told her was being sent back to the Soviet Union. He decided to defect
instead to stay in Canada. He took 109 secret documents from the Russian Embassy to get
Canada to listen to him. He was told that no one wanted to say bad things about Stalin.
● Igor went to his neighbour, who helped him and took him out of his apartment. The Russian
Embassy broke into his apartment and was discovered by the RCMP.
● Discovery that Russia was spying on Canada.
● For the public, this was the beginning of the cold war. The Soviet Union was no longer an ally.
Communists were now there enemy
● The world was divided into two spheres (Iron Curtain).
1948: Louis St.Laurent became Prime Minister. He was not as cautious as King. He was very adamant
about preventing the spread of communism.
● NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Association (collective security, multilateral arrangements)
● Canada joined NATO in hopes that the other countries would counterbalance American HIST 261: Cold War