March 19, 2014
EDMONTON HUNGER MARCH 1932
• Organized by workers community league and farmers community league.
• As a collective they would march to the legislature, and complain there.
• The city saw this as a communist gathering
• The ‘problem’ of single unemployed men
• The idea was that married men would look after their families with their relief
• Single men were seem to be more susceptible to communistic influences, because
they were young and delusional
they also seemed to be dangerous, because they were young, and had nothing to
They were representative as of the ‘wasted youth’ – they believed that this was
one generation that was never going to understand the concept oh hard work, and
not learn the work ethic because they always asked for money and food from
• During the great depression single men decided to stay bachelors for a longer
period, and decided not to get married because they knew they couldn’t afford a
wife or children
• There are municipal camps and provincial camps too. Single men would typically
go to these kinds of camps during the depression usually in the winter time,
because there was no hope for lumber or timber to sell. Etc.
shortterm and temporary
• DND (department of national defense) Camps, 1932
• They came to refer to themselves as the “Royal 20 Centers”
The OntoOttawa Trek
• The story actually starts around 1934
• It was a communist organization (quietly communist)
• These relief campers decide to strike, and go through the streets of Vancouver and
the citizens of Vancouver were quite sympathetic towards them.
• Nothing really happens at the end of the strike. So they return to their camps in
• But at the back of their minds, they still want to do something about it, so they
spread the word saying that lets climb aboard the CPR (which the CPR let them
onto the trains) and go on to Ottawa.
• So on the way there people from Calgary Banff Jasper also join them on the way. • They wanted this whole trek to look polite and not so fearsome, because if it was
a violent trek then it would have been much easier for the governments to shut
them down, which they didn’t want
• It gets to Regina, and Prime Minister Bennett tells the CPR to stop letting them
onto the trains. Because he noticed that they were beginning to pick up new men
along the way they go, and it was spiraling up
• So now they are all stuck at Regina, and they are running out of food, and money.
• So Bennett tells them to send 5 or 6 of the men to him to meet him and talk about
their problems but their meeting doesn’t go so well and Bennett has no sympathy
• So then Bennett tells the RCMP to arrest all the trekker’s leaders.
• And the REGINA RIOT, 1935 occurs.
• And in result to that, the trekkers were arrested.
DUST BOWL ALBERTA
• Donald Worster (an American historian)
• His conclusion was that what brought the dust bowl about was the soil exhaustion
and industrial capitalism.
• Geoff Cunfer – his position states that there was a wider environmental story, so
he believed that this problem wasn’t entirely supposed to blame on human causes
(which is what Worster believed), but instead just the environment which he saw
it as a cyclical background (it was just a cycle of the environment).
FROM BENNETT TO KING
• Bennett’s New Deal
such as National Minimum wage
National maximum hours
Bank of Canada
• Bennett outlines fears about Left and right
“Socialists will win!”
“Laissez faire industrial fascist will win!”
• The New Deal and the JCPC
• The Regina Riot Inquiry Commission
• The National Employment Commission
• The Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act
• The Dominion Housing Act • The Municipal Improvements Assistance Act
THE REGINA RIOT INQUIRY COMMISSION
• A Provincial commission
• Federal objections
• Federal Govt. justified
• It should have acted more carefully
THE NATIONAL EMPLOYMENT COMMISSION
• Designed to reduce federal expenditures on relief
• And streamline relief practices
• Recommended spending on housing conservation, back to the land, and an NES
THE PRAIRIE FARM REHABILIATION ACT
• Fed Prov cooperation
• Broadcast soil conservation practices
• Established demonstration stations
• Regrassed uncultivable lands
• Community pastures.
March 21, 2014
THE UFA IN DECLINE
• Unemployment in the cities – and the cities that are responsible to take care of the
unemployed cant do it anymore so they rely on the government.
• Agricultural crisis
• Tight money and cutbacks – oil wasn’t a major commodity at this time, coal was.
• A move to the Left.
• Influenced by the CCF which mostly associates with Saskatchewan but the
meeting is in Calgary.
• An embrace of socialism
Urged public ownership of land
radio, hydroelectric power
a nationalization … (GET NOTES)
AND SCANDALS: • Minister of public works involved in divorce case with rumors of wife swapping.
Such as Vivian MacMillan
• They accused Premier Brownlee of ‘seduction’ and convinced the jury and the
case wound through the courts but ended Brownlee’s career.
• The Calgary Prophetic Bible Institute, 1927
• Aberhart on the Radio (CFCN) –(he was a very charismatic speaker, and could
convince you about anything)
• Aberhart started making his Sunday bible sessions on the radio, into preaching
about the social credit, so people start studying it.
• Major CH Douglas
• Control of capital in hands of international bankers and financiers, claimed
• Social dividends (way to distribute wealth)
• Great Depression caused by bank’s failure to print enough money
• Governments should replace banks in determining how much money should be
• All citizens should receive a ‘credit’ to increase their purchasing power
• The ‘credit’ is based on something called the ‘Cultural Heritage’ (which was
anything that holds value, like rivers, dreams, trees)
• $25 dollar per month dividend
• Broad appeal, provincewide
• Labour groups thought this was a great idea
• Church Groups, ethnic minority groups, women, farmers, and the unemployed
thought the $25 a month was a great idea, so that they could spend.
SOCIAL CREDIT IN PRACTICE
• 56 of 63 seats – therefore, he has a majority government, and everyone is
• 54% of popular vote
• Major Douglas called to the scence (refused) – this has never happened in any
part of the world that a social government has been elected, and this was the first.
• Capital flight following SC victory
• Continuing Depression
• Alberta nearly broke.
SOCIAL CREDIT IN PRACTICE
• 108 acts in first year
• Early social welfare state legislation • Minimum wage legislation
• Free treatment for TB patients
• Price controls
• Public and private frustration by 1936
• The ‘experts’ in social credit
• Backbencher revolt
• The social credit board
• The Acc