Lecture 12: Steam Engine.
Steam Engine: not introduced/invented to power factories it was a solution to
another problem which was water ponds that will form in the mines.
Thomas Savery ( 1650-1715). In the british contest savery is the one invented it
( not true as heron had already invented it). It was called Miner’s friend 1698.
Edward marquise of the worcester 1663- “ engine to drvie up water by fire” ( he
came up with the design but never built it)
Miner’s friend 1698:
First patent for “steam engine”.
In reality it was a Vacum pump. Did not work- limit 12m. Could not transmit it’s
power to any external device. Total technical failure but the system succeeded.
1681 first proposal for a streamer 1690 piston steam engine. in 1707 went to
london but not yet came before the royal society in ( 1708). why did he fail,
inadequate technology ( established approach) or social issues ( new)? ALOT
OF DRAMAS BTW HIM AND SOCIETY.
Papin should try the “simplest and cheapest experiment first” ( Newton). He
never was given any money to complete his steam boat.
Papin became homeless and died forgotten sometime in 1712. Same year
thomas Newcomen announced the “invention” of piston steam engine.
Thomas Newcommon ( 1663-1729) ( vacuum and atmospheric pressure was
1764 model of Newcomen engine break down at glasgow university. Cyrator
asked to repair the model. That curator( someone who fixes the equipment) was
James Watt. ( thus he never invented the steam engine).
James Watt: scottish instrument maker. Not successful. 1763, hired by a friend at
Glasgow university as a curator of equipments. He realized that by injection of
cold water in the cylinder-80% of the heat was lost. In 1768, he came up with
design for an external steam condenser. then in 1768, new engine. In his case,
the top of the cylinder was closed, steam acted upon the piston from the top to
push. Vacuum from the condenser pulled the piston down ( thats why called
double watt as steam and vacum both worked to together).
Steam condenser eliminated cooling of the cylinder reduced use of fuel
increased engine efficiency by 5 times and they lasted longer now. ( 12 revolution
Watt opens shop- selling Iron ornaments-instrument etc. In 1773 Matthew
boulton ( first facotry millionair) buys engine from him and pays patent fees. 1774 watt moved to SOHO to work with boulton on the new machine. SOHO ENGINE
FACTORY was built.
Problem was the cylinder and back to cannon ( problem was that it will break
down and kill the user rather then enemy)
John Wilkinson 1728-1808. New cannon boring machine 1774.
In 1781, Revolution”. Watt changed his steam engine by adopting crank and a
flywheel ( invented by james pickard). It basically converted the Up and down
motion into circular motions in an steam engine to make it a factory type engine.
Before 1780, it was a water pump engine.After 1781, it became the factory
By 1799 11,200 Hp supplied by watt’s engines in britain. 5 pounds for each horse
power annually--fees charged additionally to the sale price of the engine.
• 1781 ‘revolution’ – Watt adopted crank and a flywheel (‘invented’ by James
o up and down motion into circula