Chap 11: THE NINETEENTH CENTURY
Late directoire 1798-1799
Second half of the directoire: NORMATIVE compare normative and extreme
Fabric not transparent, white color for most of the gown but with COLORED TRIM, headdress
typically worn. Long sleeves, short by 1799. Waistline below the bust, skirt varies
EXTREME: incroyable et Merveilleuse, sheer dress, roman cross lace sandals, fig. 11.3. white
color, head dress not mandatory, little or no sleeve, waistline below the bust. Little to no
petticoat worn, Greek and Roman type sandals. Hair cut short or arranged in Greek styles.
Female fashion extremists were called merveilleuses (women) and incroyables (men).
Caricatures are different to fashion plates. Some gesture help to delineate the body.
Archeological discovery: revival of interest in classical styles. Classical statuary on the nacked
perfect body. Light color in breeches and waist coat. Why light color?
Period of extremes
The age of nudity frenetic dancing, a new aristrocaty. Supremati of styles based on the Ancient
Greeks: low necklines, high waists, beginning of little or no sleeve in the Merveilleuses. Bared
Women in statues exposed their back side. New Erogenous Zone
CONSULATE AND EMPIRE
Attempts to create the elegance of court to stimulate the economy and gain credibility. Very
smart, well educated, crowned emperor, educational reforms, the government run better,
often wear military garments.
Napoleonic Wars end with the battle of Waterloo (1815). Break in communication between
English and French, also separate fashion. THE EMPIRE starts in 1814, napoleon crown himself
and his wife for 35 years=autocracy, elaborate fabrics silk brocade. The emperor Napoleon
Bonaparte economic policies pushed silk and embellishment in court dress that resembled
styles from the Ancient Regime. Women and men dress used silk, change in women English
styles to French styles later
England; Regency: king was incapable to rule, so he was replaced by someone else.
Concurrent styles (silk and cotton): white garments with dark embroidery, silk garments.
Women Pantalettes wear by children later
- Linen or cotton long drawers
- Open at crotch