1) What are cytokines? And what are the three different types of action if produces? Are they all soluble?
2) Cytokines mediate numerous biological function individually or in combination with other cells: Explain
Pleiotropic and Redundancy
3) Explain Synergy and antagonism.
4) What is cascade induction?
5) All in all, what do cytokines general role?
6) What are the three major cytokines producers? 4 things cytokines are essential for?
7) IL12, IFNγ ▯produces what kind of TH response?
8) IL4, IL5 ▯produce what kind of TH response
9) IL17, IL23 ▯produce what kind of TH response
10)If cytokines can activate all immune cell populations, give 4 reason why adaptive immune response
continue to be highly specific to particular antigens?
11) How many families of cytokines are there? How are they distinguished from each other? Their name?
12) What is the job of cytokines that belong to the interleukin 1 (IL1) family? What are some examples of
13) Interleukin 1 receptor family: what kind of receptor are these?
14) Why do you want to regulate the signaling caused by IL1 binding? What are the two ways that we
regulate this signal that?
15) Hematopooietin (class I cytokines): where they originate? How are they different and similar to each
other? What are its effect?
16)Hematopooietin receptor family: why do they have different subfamilies? Name one of the receptor?
How does the affinity of this receptor change?
17) Interferon ( class II cytokines): Type 1 Interferon (α and β): what type of effect does it have and how does
it do this ? Secreted by what cells?
18) Type II interferon (AKA interferon γ): produced by what cells and their main role is? The most important
type II is? What cells produce this cytokines? Do we have any other types of interferon?
19) Interferon receptors: what type are they? Does it just bind one cytokine?
20) Tumor Necrosis factors (TNF) cytokines family facts: give example of both the soluble and the 5
important physiological membrane bound members? Are they heterodimers? Main function of these
cytokines (3 functions)?
21) Tumor Necrosis factors (TNF) receptor family: what type of receptors are they? Are they just death
receptors? How can they become soluble?
22)How does Fas induced death? Why is this important function?
23)Interleukin 17 cytokines family: give example of these? Expressed by what cells? What are they
important for? What is IL17E function?
24) Interleukin 17 receptor family: what cells have these? Diversity?
25) Chemokine family: to what class of compound do they belong to? What is their main function?
26)How does chemokine family cause migration?
27) What dictates Chemokine structure?
28) Explain the chemokine receptor (types, unique about them, etc)
29) Where does cytokines antagonist comes from? Give example of some
30) What do we usually see in a diseased individual? What is Cytokines therapy?
ANSWERS: lecture 1 1) Cytokines are proteins that mediate the effector functions of the immune system. In there soluble form they
are released ▯ bind to its receptor on a different cell that it has very high affinity to▯induce the effect. These
can be Endocrine, paracrine, and Autocrine actions. Majority of these cytokines are soluble but some are
also membrane bound (TNF family)
2) Pleiotropic: one cytokines (IL4) produces multiple (pleiotropic) effects. Redundancy: more then one
cytokines (IL2,4,5) produces one effect (redundant)
3) Synergy: two are more cytokines (IL4+5) work together. Antagonism: one cytokine inhibits the effect of
another cytokines (IL4 and IFN gamma).
4) Cascade induction: a cytokine produce from one cell acts on another cell which then produces more cell
(lecture 6 NK cells example)
5) They regulate the intensity (regulate secretion, modulate cell surface receptors) and the duration of the
immune response (stimulation, inhibition, apoptosis, enhancing)
6) TH cell, dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages. They are essential for adaptive immune response (activation
of T B cells need these), inflammatory responses (involved in chemo traction), regulation of hematopoiesis,
and wound healing. Different Cytokines activate different TH cells.
7) TH1 ▯ cytokines ▯ activates macrophages and CTL (intracellular)
8) TH2 ▯ activates B cell (extracellular)
9) TH17▯macrophages and neutrophils are activated.
10)1. Each cell must have the cytokine receptor expressed. 2. Once T cells are activated their adhesion
molecules change so that they can migrate to where they can receive signals for proliferation and
differentiation. 3. Half life of cytokines in fluid is very short. 4. Most cytokines act in very close proximity
often between two adherent cells (paracrine)
11) Structure of the ligand and the receptor as well as nature of signaling p