1) What is Primary immunodeficiency? is this deficiency present at birth? Give an
example of this type of deficiency? What type of response does it affect?
2) What are the different types of primary immunodefinicieies? If you can name
some? Which one is the most dangerous one?
3) Name three ways you can treat primacy deficiencies.
4) What is seconday immunodeficiency? What is it also called? Why do we get it?
How can they be reversed?
5) What is one problem with severe malnutrition interms of vacines?
6) What are two types of drugs that are used as immunosuppressive? When are they
used as a treatment? What is an issue with treatment?
7) How do cyclosporin A (CsA) and tacrolimus primarily work?
8) How does NFAT signaling normally work (during resting T cell)
9) When T cells activated what happens then (explain the whole process)
10) What is NFAT very critical form?
11) How does CsA and tacrolimus inhibit NFAT signaling?
12) How is cytotoxic drugs/radiation therapy cause of 2ndery immunedeficiency?
13) How does infection lead to secondary immunodeficiency (explain using
14) What does HIV and AIDS stand for?
15)Explain structure, types of strain, how does the infection occurs, and what does
the HIV virus infect?
16) Why does HIV now lead to decrease death and less of the people infected by new
virus during AIDS?
17)Why is HIV bad? Or why do people with HIV die?
18)What drug can you treat HIV with? Is this a cure?
19)Explain the three stages of HIV? Make sure to watch for the CD4 level, in what
phase what happen? Are you seeing the symptoms? Where does the drug keep the
HIV person in? etc.
20)What are ways the HIV kills the CD4 cells?
21) Immunedeficiency lecture
1) Has a genetic basis ( mtn). This means that the immunodeficiency is present at
birth, but the immunodeficiency is not necessarily manifested at birth. XLA
patients which have mutations are not immunecompromised at birth because of
maternal immunoglobulin’s received from the mother through breast milk Can
protect the child. Immunodeficiency’s are found that both or just affect humeral or
cellmediated, and others that affect granulocytes as well as complement
2) Combined (the worst but rare both intra and extracellular get problem),
complement (problem with extracellular), humeral (like XLA), and phagocyte
deficiency (such as when phagocytes cant produce reactive species and thus can’t
kill a bacteria). Overall, there is wide range of deficiencies and they are suffering
in the severity of symptoms.
3) Replace defective/missing cell type, gene therapy where you add functional
genes, and replace defective/missing proteins.
4) immunodeficiency with a nongenetic basis and often result from exposure to
external agents. Also called acquired immunodeficiency’s. If is usually
associated with environmental factors such as nutritional status
immunosuppressive or anticancer drugs, infections,. “fixing” the cause such as
providing nutrients can often reverse it
5) When you are malnourish it affect your T cells productions and functions, as a
results, it is hard for the body to produce any reaction to the vaccines.
6) Corticosteroids (prednisone, cortisone) AND cyclosporin A or
tacrolimus/FK506. Helps to treat inflammatory diseases, autoimmune diseases