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Immunology and Infection
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CHAPTER 2 – INNATE IMMUNITY (FROM THE TEXT) Summary. 1. All multicellular organisms contain intrinsic mechanisms of defense against infections, which constitute innate immunity. 2. The mechanisms of innate immunity respond to microbes and to nonmicrobial substances, are specific for structures present on various classes of microbes, and are not enhanced by repeat exposures to microbes. 3. TLRs, which are expressed on plasma membranes and in endosomes of many cell types are a major class of innate immune system receptors that recognize different microbial products including bacterial cell wall constituents and viral nucleic acids. 4. Epithelia provide physical barriers against microbes, produce antibiotics and contain lymphocytes that may prevent infections. 5. The principal phagocytes, neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages are blood cells that are recruited to sites of infection throu
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