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LING 101 (09/04/13) - Intro Lecture

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Timothy Mills

LING 101: Lecture Notes (September 4, 2013) Introduction to Linguistic Analysis – Lecture 1 Linguistic competence – implicitly knowing about the structures/meanings in our language(s)  Ex 1: (How do you know that the word “apple” is an English word while “nuit” is not? That’s because this knowledge is stored in your subconscious memory)  Ex 2: (Why does “I went to the store today” make sense while “store went I the today to” does not? Grammar rules like this are also built into our memories subconsciously) Speaking About Grammars, there are Two Types: Prescriptive – this type of grammar tells people how they should speak/write in a certain scenario  To Remember: think about is as if your English teacher were giving you a “prescription” for how to write an essay o A dose of FORMAL o Stay away from PRONOUNS o Take medication w/ TRANSITIONS o Take 5x/day… once when you get up (INTRODUCTION), once before you go to bed (CONCLUSION), and 3x in between (the BODY) Descriptive – this type of grammar describes how people normally speak (ex. Casual conversation) *DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMARS ARE THE PRIMARY CONCERN IN LINGUISTICS What is Linguistics?  It is the study of natural human language and how it works o Physically o Mentally o Socially (ex. How differently might you speak to you mother as comparable to your friend?) o Historically (ex. Elizabethan English vs. modern-day English) o Developmentally (ex. Acquiring new vocabulary and learning new synta
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