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Lecture 5

MARK312 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Tim Hortons, Observational Error, Construct Validity


Department
Marketing
Course Code
MARK312
Professor
Webb Dussome
Lecture
5

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CHAPTER 6 - Concept of Measurement and Measurement Scales
introduction
the key items we want to measure are usually behaviour, traits, and attitudes
as a professional you realize that there are some types of questions that are not effective at
measuring exactly what you wish to obtain
measurement - the process of assigning numbers or labels to objects, persons, states, or
events in accordance with speciļ¬c rules for representing quantities or qualities of attributes
The Measurement Process
concept of rules is key to measurement
rule - a guide, method, or command that tells the researcher what to do
Step 1: Identify the Concept of Interest
concept - an abstract idea generalized from particular facts
Step 2: Develop a Construct
constructs - speciļ¬c type of concept that exists at a higher level of abstraction than do everyday
concepts
invented in theoretical use and are likely to cut across various pre-existing categories of thought
value depends on how useful they are in explaining, predicting, and controlling phenomena
some examples include brand loyalty, high-involvement purchasing, social class, personality,
and channel power
Step 3: Deļ¬ne the Concept Constitutively
constitutive deļ¬nition - a statement of the meaning of the central idea or concept under study,
establishing its boundaries; also know as theoretical or conceptual deļ¬nition
should fully distinguish the concept under investigation from all other concepts
vague constitutive deļ¬nition can cause an incorrect research question
Step 4: Deļ¬ne the Concept Operationally
operational deļ¬nition - a statement of precisely which observable characteristics will be
measured and the process for assigning a value to the concept
assigns meaning to a construct in terms of the operations necessary to measure it in any
concrete situation
serves as a bridge between a theoretical concept and real-world events or factors - transforms
non observable things like attitude and high-involvement purchasing into observable events
construct equivalence - deals with how people see, understand and develop measurements of a
particular phenomenon

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Step 5: Develop a Measurement Scale
scale - a set of symbols or numbers so constructed that the symbols or numbers can be
assigned by a rule to the individuals (or their behaviours or attitudes) to whom the scale is
applied
Step 6: Evaluate the Reliability and Validity of the Measurement Scale
ideal marketing research study provides information that is accurate, precise, lucid, and timely
systemic error - result in a constant bias in the measurements, caused by faults in the
measurement instrument or process
Measurement Scales
measuring scales consist of rules for assigning numbers to on ejects in such a way as to
represent quantities of attributes
what are the major types of measurement scales?
e.g. are you a business student 1- yes , 2-no
has the capacity to measure things of various degrees
Nominal Level of Development
think ā€œname-likeā€, this partitions data into categories that are mutually exclusive and collectively
exhaustive categories
just provide descriptor as response
1 to 1 relationship - you are either a business student or not
you either drive a car, or you don't
indicate marital status, do you like or dislike chocolate ice cream (yes/no)
want to know exactly what the answer is, not on a scale.
see these questions on demographics
Ordinal Level of Development
scales that maintain the labelling characteristic of nominal scales and have the ability to order
data - this is used strictly to indicate order
often used for measuring (e.g. brand preference, social class)
comparing things - when you are ranking preference
e.g. rank approval of coffee brands - second cup, starbucks, tim hortons, mcdonalds
trying to ļ¬gure out in terms of your preference, what one do you like in comparison to something
else
useful when you want to see where you stand against the competition
transitivity postulate - described by the notion that ā€œis a is greater than b, and b is greater than c,
then a is greater than cā€
terms used include ā€œgreater thanā€ ā€œpreferred toā€ and ā€œprecedesā€
does not indicate differences between the rankings (e.g. may ļ¬nd calgary only slightly better
than vancouver and toronto completely unacceptable but still rank them 1-2-3)
Interval Level of Measurement
scales that have the characteristics of ordinal scales, plus equal interval between points to show
relative amounts; they may include an arbitrary zero point
e.g. the concept of temperature
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allow more powerful statistical tests
no universal agreement on zero point
Ratio Level of Measurement
scales that have the characteristics of interval scales, plus a meaningful zero pint so that
magnitudes can be compared arithmetically
universal agreement on zero point so comparisons on magnitudes are possible
e.g. age, weight, height
Assessment of Reliability and Validity
Reliability
provides consistent results over time
the degree to which measures are free from random error, and therefore provide consistent data
a measure that is free from error is a correct measure
not affected by transient and situational factors - provide stable measures at different times
under different conditions
three ways to test reliability
1. test-retest
2. the use of equivalent forms
3. internal consistency
test-retest reliability
the ability of the same instrument to provide consistent results when used a second time under
conditions as similar as possible to the original
if random variations are present, they will be revealed by differences in the scores between the
two tests
stability - the lack of change in results from test to test
may be hard to locate and gain the cooperation of respondents for a second testing
the ļ¬rst measurement may alter a persons response to the second
environmental or personal factors may change, causing the second measurement to change
equivalent form reliability
the ability of two very similar forms of an instrument to produce closely correlated results
recommended interval for administering the second test is two weeks
very hard to create two totally equivalent forms
if it can be achieved, may not be worth the time, trouble, and expense
internal consistency reliability
the ability of an instrument to produce similar results when used on different samples during the
same time period to measure a phenomenon
equivalence is concerned with how much error may be introduced by using different samples of
items to measure a phenomenon
split-half technique - a method of assessing the reliability of a scale by dividing the total set of
measurement items in half and correlating the results, randomly assigned
Validity
validity addresses the issue of whether what we tried to me sure was actually measured
if the measurement instrument is not valid, it is worthless
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